Pet Food Safety:

The Final Ingredient in Your Pets Health

By Inna Shekhtman

 

frozen meat photo

 

Your pet is part of your family and you want to see them live a longer and healthier life! You buy or make great food that that will help your pet thrive, you ensure they get regular exercise and socialization, and you have a great veterinarian that supports your goals and decisions. Now you have to navigate the world of food safety: How can you ensure that the food that you buy is safe for your animal companion and the rest of your family?  How is safety implemented and regulated in the pet food processing industry? What should I do once I bring food home?  Is real (raw) food for dogs and cats less safe that highly processed food? 

The subject of food safety has received a lot of attention in the media, the industry and the pet community in recent years.  It is encouraging to see new educational initiatives to create more consumer awareness and transparency around the subject of safety in pet food!  However, food safety has also become a marketing tool with buzzwords like “clean”, “human-grade”, “certified” and “premium” that appeal to emotions rather than speak to functionality or effectiveness.  Furthermore, since the emergence of commercial raw pet food, the subject of food safety has also been used to polarize the industry by suggesting that feeding fresh food to pets poses a higher risk than processed food.  

Food safety is not an option; it’s not a political tool or a marketing tool. It’s a necessity and my hope is that as the real food revolution grows, food safety will become a culture in the industry and in our homes!

How do I know if the food that I am buying is safe?

In short, you don’t.  

In Canada, the human food supply is one of the safest in the world. However, when it comes to pet food, the regulatory system of pet food in Canada is mostly based on trust. When a pet food is made in Canada, and sold in Canada, the government simply trusts the pet food manufacturer. There are NO legislated manufacturing practices or standards to follow. There is NO inspection or verification. 

In the US, in theory, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates pet food. In practice, limited resources and the need to prioritize human safety have led the FDA to effectively cede federal oversight to the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO). A private organization with no regulatory authority, the AAFCO can’t enforce its voluntary guidelines, which emphasize nutritional requirements over sourcing. So while the association establishes such standards as minimum protein levels, it’s not strict regarding where that protein comes from. 

So how do you decide which manufacturers you can trust and which foods are safe? No food safety system or food handling practices can guarantee zero risk. However, companies that are aware of food safety risk and actively work to build a safety culture and processes will go much further in reducing these risks for consumers.  Here are some questions you can ask a manufacturer:

  1. Are all the ingredients used in the products human-grade? Do they come from facilities that are certified and inspected by the CFIA, FDA or other regulatory agency?  Personally, I believe that all ingredients in a pet food should be good enough to be consumable by humans. The world of “pet ingredients” has way too many grey areas to provide any assurance with regards to safety or quality.
  2. Where do the ingredients come from? Are they from Canada, US or overseas? And if ingredients are overseas, how well regulated is the food ingredients in the source country? Try to avoid products that include ingredients from countries with poor food safety records. 
  3. What kind of food safety systems and protocols does the company have in place?   Make sure the company is committed to a culture of food safety and has a clear system in place to manage the risks. 
  4. Are they certified or inspected by any independent body to verify that these systems and protocols are being followed?

Is processed pet food (canned or kibble) safer than raw pet food?canstockphoto9736463_small

One of the concerns raised about the trend of feeding raw unprocessed food to pets is that the bacteria in raw meat can hurt your dog or other members in the household, especially those with weakened immune systems.  Yes, raw meat can contain bacteria and it might hurt your pet if they already have a compromised immune system or other health problem.  Yes, your pet may shed bacteria in their poop and if you grab their poop, you can get sick.  

Should we as consumers be aware of this risk? Absolutely! 

Are these risks unique to raw pet food? No, they are not!  ALL pet food can contain bacteria that can be harmful to pets and humans and all pets can shed bacteria in their feces, regardless of what they are eating! While FDA and other regulatory bodies continue to claim that raw presents a risk of contamination, it understates the risks of the same contaminations in hundreds of thousands of pounds of kibble and treats that occur annually.   For example, according to the Center for Disease Control (CDC), in 2008 a contaminated dry pet food caused 79 cases of Salmonella in humans across 21 states.  

In my opinion, real food movement for pets (raw pet food) has actually done a service to the pet industry by making the pet food safety conversation front and center for consumers! The bottom line is, whatever you feed your pet: use common sense and good food handling practise (more on this to come in the next section). And please don’t lick your pet’s poop, grab it with your hands, or lick your hands after handling it.

On the other hand, we know that fresh minimally processed foods help us thrive and are better for us than food that is heavily processed.   Fresh food is certainly not risk free and all food, including vegetables, can get contaminated with bacteria such as salmonella, E.coli, etc. but these risks can be managed and reduced with good food safety systems in industry and in the home.   Our choice of foods should be based on what’s best of the body and not based on fear – and the same goes for our pets. 

In addition, most healthy pets are naturally less affected by bacteria than the human family members – after all they do groom their own rear ends and eat and roll in all kinds of unsightly things (including feces of other animals) without any ill effects.   So focusing on keeping your pet’s digestive system healthy with quality fresh food and probiotics is the best way to support this natural mechanism.

Raw Liver Photo...

Raw Liver Photo…

Basics of Pet food safety at home

Stick to the basic rules of sanitation and food handling for your pet’s food:

  1. Do not buy or keep food past its expiry date.
  2. Inspect the food before severing it to your pet – if it looks or smells different or off, do not use it. 
  3. Wash your hands, your pet’s bowl, and any other surface that came in contact with the food with soap and hot water for 20 seconds after each meal to disinfect. Yes, even if you are feeding kibble you should follow the same food safety procedures as with raw meat to avoid risk of illness! 
  4. Do not leave food sitting in your pets bowl for prolonged periods of time. Discard any uneaten food after 15-20 minutes.  
  5. And of course, wash your hands and other contact surfaces after handling what comes out the other end.

In general, use the same common sense and food handling practices as you would for your own food. If you need a refresher, check out the FDA consumer tips page: https://www.fda.gov/food/resourcesforyou/consumers/ucm255180.htm 

Raw (meat) pet food safety basics

The risks associated with raw proteins are contamination and spoilage and these do not end at the store! Handling these products with the caution and attention they deserve is our personal responsibility once we bring them home, to assure the safety of our entire family, especially your pets because they thrive on meat diets. 

What causes food spoilage?

There are several naturally occurring catalysts that can cause meat to spoil. 

Bacteria: Meat has naturally occurring microorganisms on its surface including molds and bacteria. The bacteria break down the fats and proteins in the meats, causing it to spoil.  This breakdown begins immediately after slaughter – and while it can be slowed down by lowering the temperature of the meat, it cannot be reversed or halted. In contrast, exposure to light or heat will speed up that process. 

Mold: Another cause for meat spoilage is mold. Mold likes moist, warm places with lots of food sources — meat makes a great home for a mold colony. Mold can spoil meat by spreading over the surface in fuzzy or colorful patches that change the taste and texture of the meat.

Oxidative Rancidity: Improper packing techniques can cause a chemical reaction in the meat called oxidation. The fats in the meat react with oxygen molecules and cause the meat to go rancid, producing discoloration and a rotten, sour smell and taste.

Here are the key components of any good household food safety strategy: fish

  1. Separation

Keeping raw meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs from other foods in your grocery shopping cart, grocery bags, and refrigerator to avoid cross-contamination.

2.  Handling

Wash your hands, preparation surfaces and utensils that come in contact with raw meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs with soap and hot water to sanitize. 

3. Storage 

For frozen products, store in the freezer until ready to use. Generally, food will not spoil in the freezer, but it will degrade in quality. For fresh or thawed products, store in the refrigerator for a limited period of time, to avoid spoilage.  The “Danger Zone” for bacteria growth is between 40 and 140 °F — temperatures where bacteria multiply rapidly. 

Vacuum sealing slows down the growth of aerobic, spoilage bacteria and fungi by reducing the food’s contact with atmospheric oxygen. Therefore, food quality, good texture and appearance last longer when the food is vacuum sealed. 

How long can you store meat, poultry, and seafood in the refrigerator?

 4. Thawing

If you are purchasing frozen raw food for your animal companion, you are likely going through the daily ritual of thawing the food before serving.  As soon as raw meat begins to thaw and becomes warmer than 40 °F, bacteria that may have been present before freezing begin to multiply at exponential rates. For this reason you should never use hot water to thaw raw food (not to mention it will get cooked) or leave raw food on the counter at room temperature for more than two hours. Even though the center of the package may still be frozen as it thaws on the counter, the outer layer of the food could be in the “Danger Zone,” between 40 and 140 °F — temperatures where bacteria multiply rapidly.

There are two methods of safety defrosting your pets raw meal: in the refrigerator and in cold water. 

Refrigerator Thawing

Planning ahead is the key to this method because of the lengthy time involved.  Allow for a full day to thaw the meal if it’s a flat-pack – more if the food is in a block.  A large frozen item like a turkey requires at least a day (24 hours) for every 5 pounds of weight. Even small amounts of frozen food — such as a pound of ground meat or boneless chicken breasts — require a full day to thaw. When thawing foods in the refrigerator, there are variables to take into account.

  • Some areas of the appliance may keep food colder than other areas.
  • Food will take longer to thaw in a refrigerator set at 35 °F than one set at 40 °F

Cold Water Thawing

This method is faster than refrigerator thawing but requires more attention. The food must be in a leak-proof package or plastic bag. If the bag leaks, bacteria from the air or surrounding environment could be introduced into the food. The bag should be submerged in cold tap water, changing the water every 30 minutes so it continues to thaw. Small flatter meal package of 1-2 lbs — may thaw in an hour or less.

5. Freezing and re-freezing

Home freezers are designed to keep food frozen, not to freeze food from room temperature. This means that even small portions of fresh food can take days to fully freeze, compromising the quality of the food.  Avoid freezing or re-freezing things in your home freezer. If you must do so, allow as much space around the package as possible for air circulation.  

Before we end, some food for thought … Most foodborne illness is caused by bacteria. For many years, we have been led to believe that our food and environment needs to be sterile to avoid illness.  And for many years we bought this message and waged the war on bacteria with chemical disinfectants and other modes.  More recently, we have begun to appreciate the balance of nature when it comes to bacteria and the importance of nurturing a balance of bacteria in our body end environment rather than focusing on elimination.  There are thousands of bacteria strains in the air, on surfaces and even in our own body. Not all of these bacteria are bad – in fact the majority of them play an essential role in building the immune system and keeping us healthy and safe.   

Food safety is not black and white. There is much that we are still learning about food safety in industry and in the home.  If food safety is to become a culture, it first needs to be a conversation – one that re-examines all our preconceived notions and looks at what makes the most sense for our pets and for our entire family to thrive!

References:

  1. http://wwwualberta.ca/news-and-events/newsarticles/2017/january/dry-pet-food-can-cause-salmonella-infection-in-people
  2. http://truthaboutpetfood.com/lets-get-the-facts-straight-fda
  3. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrthtml/mm54744a2.htm
  4. https://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/topics/food-safety-education/get-answers/food-safety-fact-sheets/safe-food-handling/the-big-thaw-safe-defrosting-methods-for-consumers/CT_Index
  5. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2118871/How-keeping-children-clean-wreck-immune-systems.html

STOP!

By Valerie Barry, KPA-CTP

In Partnership With Dogs

www.ipwd.ca

STOP

 

Through all the dogs we’ve had and all the training and learning I’ve done over the years, there are certain cues that stick out as particularly good (and fun) things to teach your dog.  I’ve never been much of a formal obedience-minded person.  I do teach obedience classes and I teach some “traditional” obedience cues to my dogs, but I prefer to be a little more creative.  Also, there are just certain things that make living together a little bit easier!

Over the past 4 years or so, I’ve started teaching my dogs a new cue and I’ve also started including it in my class curriculum.  I have to say – it’s a winner!  People love this cue! Even the dogs seem to love it!

Stop!  That’s my new favorite.  What’s it for?  Well – just imagine some of the things your dog does that you might use that word for.  Stop – digging up the plants; barking at the squirrels; teasing the cat – and so on.

Several years ago I came across a video from a trainer who worked with rescue bully breeds and he was demonstrating his use of the Stop cue.  He taught all his foster dogs and clients a Stop cue.  His reason for doing so was to put some level of control into the play between the bully breeds he was working with.  

The dogs he had in his video were strong dogs and they had a pretty fast and furious play style.  The Stop cue was designed to get the dogs to stop playing altogether or to stop and take a brief break so that play would remain fairly consistent and not escalate into something other than play.  

If you’re just one person monitoring play between 2 or more strong dogs, it can be difficult to physically stop the dogs if their play starts to get a little too crazy.  Pulling dogs apart during play isn’t really ideal either as tension on collars or harnesses can often increase the energy of the play making the dogs harder to separate and less thrilled about being stopped.  Teaching a really solid Stop cue is a great, proactive way to solve this issue.FullSizeRender

It was a great video – unfortunately I no longer recall who the trainer was at the time so I can’t give him credit!  It lodged in the back of my mind as a really good cue to teach but I didn’t take it any further at the time.  

Fast forward a couple of years and we adopt Quincy – a 6-month-old female Doberman.  At the time, a friend of mine had a dog the same age (Frankie) and we started to introduce the girls to each other and to have the occasional play date.  For a time, I was looking after Frankie often and the 2 girls quickly became fast friends.  At that point they were both about the same size – they weren’t that big then – but boy did they play like crazy things!  They were nuts when they got going – even in a small space like my living room.  If I ever let them out into the yard together (which was a rare occasion!), I needed at least one other person to help monitor things – they both ran like the wind and were very hard to catch once they got caught up in the frenzy of their play.  It was a full time job looking after them both – and exhausting!

I really didn’t want them to learn to play like idiots without taking appropriate breaks, so I had to do something about it.  I remembered the Stop and decided to put it to the test.

I spent several days working on training Stop with the 2 dogs whenever we got together.  Within a remarkably short time both girls were pretty good at it and it suddenly got a whole lot easier to have them together.  Before too long I didn’t have to monitor them nearly as closely and I could get them to take breaks whenever I could hear or see things getting a bit too fast with very little effort on my part.  Fantastic result!  

Fast forward another 2 years and we adopt Doberman puppy, Jack.  IMG_9031

At this point, Quincy has become a full-grown almost adult Doberman.  She’s not big for a Doberman but she’s still a good-sized dog and pretty strong – and Jack is looking like he’s going to be a lot bigger still.  The Stop will be a perfect cue to be able to control their interactions, as they both get bigger and more mature.

What does “Stop” mean?

My criterion for Stop is:  Stop whatever you’re doing and come back to me.  

Before I even started teaching the cue, I put quite a bit of thought into what I wanted to have happen.  That’s an extremely important point! Before you begin to teach your dog anything, you need to know exactly what you want as a result.  If you’re not clear what you want, your dog won’t be either and confusion can be frustrating for everyone and your training will not be successful.

I decided that if I my dogs just Stopped with nothing else following, then there was a good chance they would go back to what they were doing sooner than I might want.  Also, I really liked the idea of them being close enough to put on a leash if I needed to.  Now, of course I could cue “Stop” and then cue something else like a recall, but if I can accomplish all that in just one cue, why not?

Your criterion doesn’t have to be the same as mine, but make sure you have a clear idea of your end result.  Also, make sure you can easily train it.  If you wanted your dog to Stop and stay where he is, that would be tricky.  That involves training at a distance, which is done systematically and generally takes quite a bit of time.  It’s not easy to train your dog to perform things far away from you.  Traditionally we often begin training our dogs quite close to us – teaching Sits, Downs, Roll Over, Play Dead, Hand Targets, etc.  They become used to being close to us when performing cues or coming to us to get their reinforcement and this makes distance training quite challenging.Screenshot 2017-04-27 14.08.41

Let the training begin!

I began Stop training with Jack the day we adopted him – at 10 weeks of age.  The results with him have been even better than I expected!  Certainly starting before his imprinting period was over made a big difference, but also because I had already trained the cue a few times before so I was very clear on how to get it and what to look for.  Plus, Jack has some pretty strong drive, so he does everything with great gusto!

Beginning Steps:

To begin with, ensure that you are working in an area with nothing much going on – maybe your living room or kitchen.

  1. With your dog on a leash short enough that you can reach his nose, cue the word “Stop”.
  2. Immediately put a really good treat right in front of his nose for him to eat.  Continue to feed more treats while you take a few steps backward leading him with you as he takes and eats his treats – at least 15 treat in all! Lavish him with some verbal praise while he follows you eating his treats.
  3. Use a cue to end the exercise – “All Done!” 
  4. Repeat the first 3 steps at least 5 times.

Next Steps:

  1. With your dog on a short leash, cue the word “Stop” – this time pause instead of immediately putting a treat in front of your dog’s nose.
  2. As soon as your dog begins to turn toward you looking for that stream of treats, click or verbally mark his response – “Good!”
  3. Immediately begin the continuous feeding of treats while you once again take a few steps backward and lavishly praise his brilliance.  Again, feed at least 15 treats in all before stopping.
  4. “All Done!”  
  5. Repeat at least 10 times, and then take a break.FullSizeRender4

Trouble-Shooting.

If you aren’t getting a response, there are several reasons why this may be:

  1. Your treats aren’t tasty enough.  

You need to use mind-blowing, over-the-top treats for this to ultimately be a solidly trained cue.  Remember that you are possibly asking your dog to come away from something really fantastic to come back to you even if it’s just for a brief moment.  Make it worth their while!

  1. You aren’t being generous enough.  

When I mention in the steps to give your dog 15 treats, I mean at least 15 and I’m not kidding!  I will give at least that and even more – 25 or 35 pieces of rare roast beef.  It has to be ridiculously rewarding in order to compete with taking a play break from your dog’s best friend.  

The biggest mistake I see people make in their training is not being generous enough – nothing more complicated than that – simply not begin generous enough.  And your dog is the one that gets to decide what’s generous enough!

  1. Your set up is too exciting.  

If you’ve done lots of practice in your living room, don’t move from there to having your dog playing with their best friend!  And when you do move to that step, have both dogs on leash and merely looking at each other from at least 10 feet away.  If you make the set up too challenging to break away from, too quickly your training will take a long time.  

  1. Your dog isn’t on leash or confined in some way.  

You really need to be able to control the outcome to some extent in the initial steps.  I don’t want you to use the leash to get them to come back to you – the treat and the less than exciting set up should do the trick.  However, I do want you to use the leash to prevent your dog from simply wandering off and choosing to do something else instead.IMG_2226

The Double Reinforcement!

Perhaps the best tip of all is to make your set up include the possibility of a double-reinforcement.

This means that whatever you Stop your dog from doing, ideally, is something he really wants to return to doing.  This becomes your second reinforcement after the buffet of delicious treats is over.

After some initial training with low distractions, I started to use play as the second reinforcement. Every time I cued Stop, both my dogs got tons of treats and then I would say “All Done!” – back they would jump into play.  Such fun and well worth the break for each of them! 

You could do the same training with a friend and their dog in order to get that reinforcement of play.  If you don’t have a second dog available or if your dog isn’t good with other dogs, then just be creative.  The second reinforcement can be anything that your dog finds reinforcing:  going off leash, chasing a ball, chasing you, getting dinner, playing tug, etc.

(Note:  If your dog does not find play with another dog or play with a particular dog fun, then returning to play is NOT reinforcing. However, the relief of being able to take a break from any play or interaction that they are not enjoying will actually act as the second reinforcement.)IMG_2231

Continuing to Proof your Training.

Once your training is progressing and your dog is clearly beginning to understand his Stop cue, you can begin to “proof” your training.  Proofing is simply practicing and training in every circumstance you can think of in a systematic way and choosing a careful pace.

I didn’t go from play in my living room to free play in my backyard as the next step.  Instead, we did a ton of training in my living room with longer and longer time periods of play between breaks first.  Then I would introduce new toys, or something to get the excitement of the play amped up before introducing Stop breaks.  I wanted to start working with bigger bursts of excitement before asking for a Stop.

I also started using it in other contexts – someone at the door, dogs barking; off leash walking away from me; staring at something out the window; barking at a squirrel; heading toward a dropped food item on the floor (tough one!), etc.

Be careful to make things easy to first when you change contexts.  When I started to introduce free play in the yard, I began when they were both already tired from a long hike.  Then I made sure they only interacted for mere seconds before cueing Stop – not waiting for the adrenaline to build very much at all.  The reinforcements were over the top – the best food option I could come up with.

This became a very useful cue for me and I have put a lot of time and effort into the training.  After about a year and a half of working with both my dogs, I can now cue them to Stop playing together anywhere (so far!) – out of sight, a long way away, with any level of play, with different dogs who don’t even know the cue themselves.  It’s pretty impressive if I do say so myself.  I love it!

Also, I have to say, it’s a lot of fun to do in front of people because boy does it look great when you can stop your dog in mid-flight or mid-play with their dog and have them immediately heading right back to you!

Other Uses for Stop.

 I have found tons of uses for Stop:

  • off leash as an alternative to my Recall
  • chasing wildlife
  • barking
  • jumping up (not an ideal solution, but okay in an emergency)
  • a lunge or pull on leash (not a good solution for constant pulling, but good in an emergency)
  • spotting or thinking about chasing a jogger or biker
  • stopping a potential interaction with another dog
  • stopping a stare or a stalking position directed at other dogs
  • a great cue for people who walk more than one dog – owners or even dog walkers

What uses can you think of for Stop?

Enjoy your training with your dog! Remember, keep it positive – and BE GENEROUS with your reinforcement!

For video examples of the Stop in use, check out my Facebook page at “In Partnership With Dogs”.IMG_2230

Adventures of a Spiritual Dogster

It’s Hard for Them Too: Help Your Dog to Understand Death

By Amanda Ringnalda

www.samadog.com

marge sasha amanda

Sasha came out to greet me as I approached — an 11-year-old female old Border Collie mix. I was immediately drawn into her large and especially round, coppery-colored eyes and pretty face. Her tail was swingin’ with delight at meeting a person who immediately recognized the soul within her. And she knew it. 

A couple feet behind Sasha stood the delicate figure and huge smile of Marjorie — the most vibrant and joyful 93-year-young woman I’ve ever met. I was visiting this dynamic duo for the first time, having been contacted by a caring family member to come in and provide support through this difficult part of their journey together as bonded souls: one human, one canine. This powerful pair was facing the reality which all of us will one day face… the end of life in this body.  

In December 2016, Marjorie (the human companion) was diagnosed with ovarian cancer. Considering her age, treatment wasn’t suggested. So she’s spending her time at home now, with support from hospice. She’s feeling amazing some days, not so great other days. Marjorie’s perspective on the whole thing remains the motto she has held her whole life: she’s “taking it as it comes – there’s no need to get all upset.”

Sasha kept one eye on Marjorie every moment I was there. She was like her short and furry nurse. Marjorie is a tiny yet strong woman, and didn’t seem to need or want much nursing with the energy I saw! Yet, there was a secure tie between the two at all times. Marjorie explained that following her adoption 10 years earlier, she and Sasha have been together almost non-stop ever since. 

Needless to say, both beings were deeply affected by Marjorie’s illness. To help support the pair in their energetic healing and balancing, I had formulated a custom flower essence blend for each of them. After I brought out a tiny bit of lavender essential oil to invoke a more calm and grounded environment, I also put 7 drops of Sasha’s flower essence liquid on a little dog biscuit, let it absorb, and fed it to her. She kindly accepted. Actually, she was drawn toward the bottle of essence before I even got it open! Initially, her actions were more likely from curiosity – what will this interesting new human pull out of her purse next?! Yet after she caught the initial whiff, and processed the information she had received, she came right in for more, holding her nose directly against the bottle. I’d say that’s a good fit! 

After another 20 minutes or so of conversation about their relationship – building the energetic bond even stronger – I applied Sasha’s essence to her external body by putting a few drops between her shoulder blades, which is an especially receptive energy center for animals. Being that it’s close to their heart region, it’s of particular importance when balancing emotions. Now, everyone was at ease and ready for some settling in. 

Together we prepared for our meditation… some time for us to move beyond the thoughts, words, and doings and allow our awareness to relax into the stillness and peace which lies within us. Within all of us, no matter what kind of animal. When we spend more dedicated time in this peace space, we’re reminded that we are more than our bodies – our true essence is timeless, ageless, and beyond the reach of death… a deeper existence in which we are all one.

The intention of our meditation was to provide a tool to help Marjorie and Sasha stay established in this oneness. The quiet practice of meditation provided an opportunity for communication without words to flow to and from each of them. This communication can provide comfort, ease, and relief from the fears around the change we are all destined to face. 

We sat for a few minutes in the silence and stillness. Then I opened the idea of sharing, through the voice of the heart, and from a space of feeling as opposed to thinking. I guided them to send any messages they’d like to each other. Then we let the potential of silence remain. Tears filled my closed eyes as I felt love embrace us.

The ease and grace in which Marjorie is handling this huge life change is remarkable. Following our meditation, she was comfortably open to me sharing these suggestions for helping Sasha the dog, or most any animal, understand the process of death and dying, as well as grieving:

Tips for helping a dog process the loss of a loved one:

  • Talk to them. Speak from your heart. Explain what is happening. They don’t need to know the words to understand your message. Keep in mind, they already know from their highly-attuned senses that change is in the air.
  • Be sure to tell them the plan when the time comes – where they will go and who they will live with. Do your best to share this with an energy of safety and being very well cared for. 
  • Allow the pet to either be present during the time of passing, or, as strange as it may sound, allow them to smell the body afterward. Dogs live their life through their profound sense of smell. They receive the information they need through smell. 
  • Keep an item of clothing or something that holds the scent of the departed one. Place it in or near their pet’s bed – someplace where they can lay on it. 
  • Use supportive tools like flower essences, energy work, animal communication, and meditation before and after transition to fortify the eternal bond.
  • Recognize that beings who love one another are forever together and able to stay connected on the spiritual plane. That’s why it’s ideal if the dog can be taken to do things or visit places where they used to go with their beloved human companion. 

To me, it’s times like this where the holistic approach is so amazingly rich, fulfilling, and essential to living a truly integrated life. Body, mind, and spirit are who and what every one of us is. The sooner we come to embrace the energetic and soulful side, not only of humans but animals as well, the sooner we get to enjoy the most enriching relationships and the most gratifying life we can imagine.

This article is dedicated to the inspirational Marjorie and her forever friend Sasha. 

 

Get Down!

By Valerie Barry, KPA-CTP

In Partnership With Dogs

www.ipwd.ca

What happy, polite greetings!

Ups and Downs!

I sometimes wonder why our dogs don’t just pack up their little bags and head off into the sunset leaving all of us humans behind.  We are so confusing to live with!

One of the things that most people really hate is a dog jumping up on them. For dogs, I think this must be one of their most confusing interactions with us.  

What exactly do we want??  The only consistent thing I see about how people handle this behaviour is that they are consistently unclear!

If you and your dog stop to chat with someone and then your dog jumps up on that person, how do you handle it?  Are you a . . .

1. Reactive Screamer: Yell at your dog to “Get Off!”

2. Military Commander: Sternly cue your dog to get “Down!”

3. Apologetic Yanker: Yank your dog back by the leash/collar/harness apologizing profusely (“Oh my gosh, he never does that!” Hmmm – really?)

4. Late Trainer: Frantically cue your dog to “Sit, Sit, Sit, Sit, NO! Sit, Sit, Sit, SIT!”

5. Friendly By-Stander: Cheerily carol out the ever popular “It’s OK – he’s friendly!”

6. Blame Passer: Complain with annoyance “Oh you have treats in your pocket!” (My fault your dog jumped on me – SO sorry.)

Chances are you do at least one of those things – because I’ve been jumped on by a lot of dogs and I’ve seen and heard it all!Beautiful greeting. Good thing because she has just rolled in goose poo!

Why do dogs jump up in the first place?  That’s always the first question I’m asked.  The answer: who knows?  We will never know why that particular dog chose that particular person and that particular time to jump up.  Luckily we can make some educated guesses and come up with a training plan to solve the problem.

1. Fearful or anxious dogs.

I do think that there are some dogs who jump up on people as a way to deflect or ward off unwanted attention.  I’ve met some dogs who give every appearance of being uncomfortable around people, clearly dislike being touched and handled by strangers and yet will jump up on them at any opportunity.  Actually, I think it’s a particularly clever tactic, as it does tend to get people to back (or stumble) away from you.  It’s a much more peaceful gesture than barking and lunging and yet accomplishes the same thing for the dog – distance. 

2. Youthful Reinforcement.

Most dogs get a lot of reinforcement during early puppyhood for jumping up on people, and I think this is where it starts for a lot of them.  Everybody loves a puppy!  There aren’t many people who mind soft little puppy paws landing on their shins as they ruffle baby-soft fur and exchange adoring gazes.  You can tell everyone you meet to “please ignore my puppy until he sits” and not a single person will comply – trust me, I know! The reinforcement puppy gets from happy, high-pitched voices exclaiming over his cuteness isn’t matched by many things at that age – unless of course he’s a fearful puppy (see paragraph above).

3. It just feels good.

I think that friendly dogs just like to jump up on us – to engage us, get some attention from us, get closer to us – who knows why, but they just like to do it.  And because they like to do it, they’re going to continue to do it unless someone gives them a better alternative.

Dogs don’t speak English – really, they don’t.IMG_2367

Once puppyhood has passed or at least once puppy more closely resembles a full-grown adult dog, there is no longer any appreciation for exuberant, jumping-up types of greetings.  At this point, many owners immediately revert to their native tongue and expect dogs to clearly understand that “Get Down” means to take their paws off that person’s pant legs and put them back on the ground.  Many people seem to think dogs should just “get” this without any training.

Have you actually tried to do some training with your dog? 

If you have, this is where things start to get even more confusing . . .

What word have you taught and are you using it consistently?

Many of us teach our dogs to lie down using the cue “Down”.  And, yet, the most common thing that pops out of many human mouths when a dog jump up is “Down”!  Unless you’ve spent a lot of time “proofing” your Down cue, I doubt they’re going to sink into a down right at this moment – and I’m guessing that’s not what you were meaning anyway – right?    

I had a friend who insisted that she used “Lie Down” for her Down cue and when she said “Down!” she meant for her dog to get down from the human they were jumping on.  Again – unless you’ve worked very hard on training this AND are really consistent with the use of both things, that’s a tough one for any dog.  Frankly, most dog owners aren’t that dedicated to everyday training to accomplish this level of precision – that requires hundreds of hours of practice.

What do you actually mean and what are you actually asking?

Let’s say that instead of polluting your Down cue, you choose to use “Off” instead.  Makes sense, right?  “Get Off” is a common turn of phrase so our dogs should understand that easily.  Well, see above…“Dogs don’t speak English”…!  

Even more confusing than what cue is most appropriate to train and use, is what you actually want your dog to do in the first place.  Do you want your dog to get down after he jumps up OR do you want your dog to stop jumping up on humans in the first place?  I would imagine that everyone really wants no jumping in the first place – but they really haven’t thought through that question.  If you don’t want the jumping at all, why not train your dog to something other than jump up instead of spending all that time trying to “train” “Get Off”?!  See – it’s confusing even for us to understand – imagine how our dogs feel!

Are you creating a behaviour chain?

Even if you’re very successful with your training – your dog understands “Off” and is happily getting down off the humans he jumps on when you give your cue – what are you really training?  

Would it surprise you to know that you’ve actually just very successfully taught your dog TO jump on humans!  

What you’ve unknowingly done is create a Behaviour Chain.  In order for your dog to get the “Good Boy” and/or Treat that follows the “Off” cue, your dog must first jump on the human.  If he wants the “Good Boy” / Treat / or simply the happier vibes he gets from all surrounding humans, this is the chain that you are building:  Jump Up, Get Off, Get Reinforced.  For some particularly “friendly” dogs this chain evolves to: Launch at High Speed, Jump Up (On), “Get Off!”, Get Reinforced.  The “Get Off” is what your dog thinks is causing the reinforcement and in order to get that, he must first do the initial step(s).FullSizeRender

Training, training, training!

Here are 2 phrases that set most trainer’s teeth on edge – kind of like biting into tinfoil with a metal filling:

  1. My dog “knows” what to do, he’s just (pick one): (a) ignoring me, (b) being stubborn, (c) mad at me, (d) being spiteful, etc.
  2. Dogs want to “please us”.  I guess what follows is that they will, therefore, eventually figure out what to do in their desire to make us happy.

Because we cannot interview our dogs with any degree of confidence, there is no evidence to show that dogs “just want to please”.  And, there is a lot of evidence to support that if a dog “knows what to do” (i.e. the training has been consistent, thorough and there is a history of appropriate reinforcement for the dog), he will just do it when he’s asked to. 

Not jumping up on people is actually one of the easiest things to teach your dog – in terms of skills and equipment involved.  There’s really not much to it – BUT – you have to put in the time to practice.  If your dog has already developed a habit of jumping up, you will have to work a little bit harder.

If you don’t want your dog to jump up on people at all, then that’s what you have to reinforce.  The training challenge here relies on 2 things that are not easy:

  1. Controlling people’s access to your dog; and
  2. Controlling your dog’s access to people.IMG_2240

Management.

Like any training, when you are trying to change behaviour, management is critical. You simply cannot allow people to get into your dog’s jumping range (or vice versa) without some plan to control the outcome (no jumping).  

Every un-managed incident of jumping up ultimately reinforces the behaviour of jumping up.  Science has taught us that once behaviour has been acquired, it is strengthened by a schedule of random reinforcement – think slot machines and how people continue to play despite rarely winning.

Management can be the hardest part of the training – it’s really hard to control people!  

  • Stop at a good distance from people – be well aware of the range of your dog’s leash. 
  • Ask people not to approach you too closely.  
  • Be prepared to just walk away if someone is not willing to comply with your request – your dog’s training depends on it.

It should go without saying that your dog must be on leash when outside with you and maybe even on leash (or confined) when guests come over to your house.  If there’s any chance that your dog is going to jump on someone, they simply cannot be free to do so if you ever hope to successfully “un-train” this behaviour.  This is really hard for people to do too!  

What about off leash activities?  Again, you need to be in a position to control the outcome if you want Jumping Up to disappear.  If your dog is off leash in an area where people are, he simply cannot be free until his training is really good and you are in control of his behaviour.  Recall training is important here – if he has a fantastic Recall, then Jumping Up can be potentially controlled on leash if he will come when called and you’re carefully watching the trail.  

The Training: 4-On-The-Floor.

As I said, the training is simple!

With your dog on leash and tons of fantastic treats on hand:

  • Click or Mark and treat your dog as people are approaching for keeping all 4 of his feet on the ground.
  • The Clicking and treating should be rapid fire.  Do this as fast as your dog can chew and you can Click.  We need to plug a ton of information in his brain as quickly as possible – “keeping your feet on the ground pays off in BIG ways!”
  • Tossing your treats on the ground closer to you than the oncoming human can help by keeping eye contact between dog and visitor to a minimum and keeping your dog closer to you as he collects his treat.
  • Stop well beyond the range of his leash and continue to Click “4-on-the-floor”.
  • Discourage people from coming closer, turn and leave or move off to the side of the trail if close contact appears likely.
  • Hundreds of repetitions of your dog practicing Not Jumping Up is required before your dog will naturally look to you for reinforcement rather look to the oncoming human as an opportunity to Jump Up.
  • It seems like everyone is an expert! Don’t get into a discussion with anyone you meet about better ways to do things – you have your training plan, stick to it! IMG_5500

Training an Alternate Behaviour.

The exercise above trains an alternate behaviour of Keeping Feet on the Ground vs. Jumping Up.

Some people prefer to have their dogs Sit when they meet people.  This is fine too – but I would still do the exercise noted above for a long time before I started asking for a Sit and then Clicking and treating the Sit.  Working on the exercise above will help get that initial excitement under some level of control so that a Sit is more likely to be successful.

Once your dog is used to the pattern of seeing a human and looking to you for reinforcement, it will be far easier to start adding in the Sit cue.  

In the meantime, make sure you practice your Sit cue all by itself in many, many different contexts so your dog gets really good at it.  When you start adding it in, it should then be very easy for your dog to Sit.

It’s OK to Walk Away.

By the way, if you have a fearful dog who jumps up, consider being content with him keeping 4 paws on the ground vs. asking for a Sit.  If your dog is worried about people, it may be hard for him to be “trapped” in a Sit cue – feeling unable to get up and leave if he needs to.  It’s not fair to expect a fearful dog to just Sit and potentially be handled by someone he finds scary.  Teaching that particular dog that he can just walk away is important.  In this case, follow the Click and treat for keeping his feet on the ground by a Recall back to you so he can learn the “walk away” behaviour.  If he is fearful, the relief he feels by walking away will be highly reinforcing.

The Family Dynamics

This could be an entire training article all by itself.  Our families aren’t always helpful when it comes to training (or un-training) our dogs!  If you have a dog who is super excited about people coming home (or even just coming out of the bathroom!) and you don’t live alone, then I’m guessing your dog is practicing all his people jumping, at home, on a regular basis.

If you let all this jumping continue at home, no matter how much training you do outside your home will ultimately be compromised as your dog struggles to understand the difference between greeting strangers and greeting family.  

The good news is that your family is pretty much a group of “captive” training partners – they can help you!  Practice the “4-on-the-floor” exercise with your dog on leash and your family coming and going from the house.  If you can spend 10 minutes each day training by having someone come in and out of the door repetitively – you can accomplish a lot in a short time.  Ask family members to send you a text or a quick call when they are about to arrive at home so you can get organized and begin training as soon as they walk through the door.

Ensure that your dog is confined if you’re not able to train during home arrival times so you’re not, once again, compromising your training.

If you have anyone in the family who just will not or cannot help you with the training, you can still make progress as long as you can manage interactions as much as possible to avoid jumping up.

If you happen to have someone in the family who just loves having the dog jump all over them, there’s a solution for that too!  Ask that family member to, at the very least, throw out a cue – like “Jump Up Fido!” – before your dog launches himself at that one person.  If they can’t manage to throw out a cue just before the “attack”, then ask that they ignore Fido until he jumps down, then cue the Jump Up.  It’s not perfect but it’s likely to be more helpful than just letting it continue on your dog’s agenda.FullSizeRender3

Side Note:  On the topic of dogs understanding or not understanding English:  while dogs do give every appearance of understanding a lot of what we say, they do not understand our spoken (or written) language.  What they do is master our tone and body language and make really good guesses at our intent a lot of the time.  This is a pretty impressive skill, actually, and comes with being our companions for thousands of years.  Plus, with good positive training, you can teach your dog to associate words like Sit for example with the act you mean it to be – put your butt on the ground.  The word could be “Sit” or it could be “blabbityboo” – the key is making that association with consistent, positive training.  

So – are you really to get started with a different plan?!  Remember to keep it positive!

 

Hemp Products for Animals

Cannabis_Oil

Scientific Report

CONSUMERS’ PERCEPTIONS

OF HEMP PRODUCTS FOR

ANIMALS

Lori R. Kogan, PhD; Peter W. Hellyer, DVM, MS, DACVA, & Narda G. Robinson, DO, DVM, MS, FAAMA
From the Department of Clinical Sciences, the College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80526.

Address correspondence to Dr. Kogan at lori.kogan@colostate.edu

ABBREVIATION
CBD — cannabidiol
CBDA — cannabidiolic acid
THC — delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol THCA — tetrahydrocannabinolic acid

Abstract

This study was designed to determine which hemp products pet owners are purchasing, reasons for their purchases, and the perceived value of these products on pets’ health. An anonymous online survey was given to pet owners who buy products from an online hemp company. Total responses were 632, of which 58.8% indicated they currently use a hemp product for their dog. Most dog owners (77.6%) indicated they use the product for an illness or condition diagnosed by a veterinarian, with the most common conditions including seizures, cancer, anxiety and arthritis. Fewer participants indicated they currently use hemp products for their cat (11.93%), with 81.8% indicating they use the product for a veterinarian-diagnosed illness or condition, most commonly cancer, anxiety and arthritis. The results of this study provide support for the growing number of anecdotal stories and offer guidance to researchers seeking to perform clinical studies on hemp in terms of its putative effectiveness and possible adverse outcomes. The information from this survey can serve as the basis for controlled clinical trials in areas including pain management, behavioral interventions for sleep disorders and anxiety for dogs, and pain management, inflammation reduction, and improvement in sleep patterns for cats.

Introduction

The term “cannabis” refers to plants belonging to the genus Cannabis as well as those products designed for therapeutic applications (1). Cannabinoids can be administered in a variety of methods including orally, sublingually, or topically and either extracted naturally from the plant or manufactured synthetically (2).

Both hemp and marijuana originate from the Cannabis sativa plant. As such, both contain an array of plant-based chemicals called “cannabinoids,” including the 2 main cannabinoids, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA). THCA, when dried or heated, converts to the psychoactive cannabinoid, delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Similarly, decarboxylation of CBDA yields cannabidiol (CBD). The main differences between hemp and marijuana are the ratio of THC to CBD, the amount of fiber in the stalks, and the production of seeds for oil (3). By definition, “industrial hemp,” the hemp of commerce which can be used for medicinal purposes, food, or fiber content, contains high levels of CBD and less than 0.3% THC on a dry matter basis. By comparison, tests of some modern strains of marijuana reveal levels of THC greater than 20% and much

40 AHVMA Journal • Volume 42 Spring 2016

lower levels of CBD (4). While many people differentiate THC as “psychoactive” and CBD as “non-psychoactive,” CBD does affect the nervous system; however, it does not cause the typical “high” associated with THC (5).

Some countries have legalized medicinal-grade cannabis. In the United States, 23 states and Washington, DC have introduced laws to permit the medical use of cannabis (6). A recent meta-analysis that included 79 randomized human clinical trials (6462 participants) found moderate- quality evidence to support the use of cannabinoids for the treatment of chronic pain and spasticity; and low-quality evidence suggesting that cannabinoids are associated with improvementsinnauseaandvomitingduetochemotherapy, weight gain in HIV, sleep disorders, and Tourette syndrome (1). When assessing adverse effects, cannabinoids were associated with an increased risk of short-term adverse effects including asthenia, balance problems, confusion, dizziness, disorientation, diarrhea, euphoria, drowsiness, dry mouth, fatigue, hallucination, nausea, somnolence, and vomiting (1, 7). Additionally, The National Institutes of Health, as of 2015, has updated its website (http://www.drugabuse.gov/ publications/drugfacts/marijuana-medicine) to include information about the positive effects of cannabis on cancer, reporting, among other benefits, that it has been found to kill cancer cells without harming healthy cells (7).

In the United States, cannabis is a controlled substance and has been classified as a Schedule I agent (a drug with increased potential for abuse and no known medical use) by federal law. This makes the use, sale, and possession of cannabis (marijuana) illegal. Its status as a Schedule 1 drug has imposed strict limitations on clinical research, severely hampering the ability of clinicians to inform patients and clients about its benefits and risks from an evidence- informed perspective. This has resulted in patients having to adopt a trial-and-error method to determine which, if any, cannabinoids can help alleviate their symptoms or benefit their conditions. It is for these reasons that numerous physician and health care organizations, including the American Medical Association, American Public Health Association, and National Association for Public Health Policy, are urging the federal government to reschedule marijuana, thereby easing research restrictions, to permit more cannabinoid-based research (8, 9).

In addition to a lack of research, the field also suffers from a lack of oversight and control. For both medical and

recreational use, a “buyer beware market” currently exists for cannabis products. As the use of cannabis has expanded, a variety of edible products for oral consumption has been developed with current estimates noting that 16%–26% of patients using medical cannabis consume edible products (10, 11). Even though oral consumption eliminates the harmful by-products of smoking, lack of adequate control over dose titration can result in overdosing or underdosing, highlighting the importance of accurate product labeling (12).

Independent analyses have found that medicinal marijuana food products designated for human consumption, such as candies, brownies and teas, often are not labeled correctly. One study, for example, evaluated the contents of 75 products from 47 different brands purchased at marijuana dispensaries in San Francisco, Los Angeles, and Seattle, for their content of THC and cannabinoids. Their analysis uncovered widespread discrepancy between the actual amount of THC and cannabinoids from what was printed on the products’ labels. Among the products analyzed, only 17% were accurately labeled; 23% of the products contained more of these compounds than listed; and 60% contained less than stated (12).

A growing number of states has gone beyond legalizing medical cannabis and made recreational cannabis legal as well. Colorado, Washington, Oregon, Alaska, and the District of Columbia all have legalized medical cannabis; and another 11 states, all of which have decriminalized possession of small amounts of marijuana, are expected to approve similar ballot initiatives between now and mid-November of 2016 (13). Perhaps tellingly, the market for legal cannabis has been identified as one of the fastest-growing industries in the United States, with a market growth of 74% in 2014, to $2.7 billion, up from $1.5 billion, in 2013 (14).

Given the expanding interest in both medical and recreational cannabis, it is perhaps unsurprising that this interest has expanded to include consideration of its potential benefits for companion animals (15). Biscuits, edibles, and capsules containing non-psychoactive cannabinoid compounds (e.g., CBD) have become available and are being marketed to pet owners with several companies in California, Oregon, and Washington rising to fill this need (16–19). Anecdotal reports from pet owners indicate that some find cannabis products helpful for pain, arthritis, seizures, anxiety, and inappetence in both dogs and cats.

AHVMA Journal • Volume 42 Spring 2016 41

Another study summarized by the AVMA reported that pet owners are using cannabis to treat behavior-based disorders such as separation anxiety and noise phobia, in addition to problems affecting the body and mind such as irritable bowel syndrome, and management of pain, nausea, and seizures (20). Many caregivers report positive outcomes. Consequently, interest in cannabis as a therapeutic agent for animals is spreading, and veterinarians are fielding more requests from their clients about whether cannabis might help their pets (8, 21).

However, just as in human medicine, there is little research- based information available to provide analysis and guidance about the use of medical cannabis for animals. Restrictions on cannabis research for veterinary patients have, until recently, imposed nearly insurmountable barriers on clinical investigations of the medical applications of hemp and medical marijuana. Lacking rigorous scientific evidence, veterinarians cannot determine safe dosages and THC/CBD ratios of medical marijuana for dogs, cats, and other animals. As is true for physicians, veterinarians are left relying on anecdotal reports, trial and error reports from clients, and companies’ claims (22).

The few studies that have been published on cannabis in non- humans have mainly focused on toxicity (23, 24). Marijuana exposure in pets, as reported to the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animal’s Poison Control Hotline, is becoming more frequent. Since 2009, calls reporting marijuana exposure have risen by 50%. It is unknown if this increase is truly due to an increase in the number of animals that are exposed to marijuana or because of the recent legalization of medical marijuana in many states, making people more likely to admit that their animal has ingested a marijuana product. Most reported cases of cannabis poisoning in pets are from the ingestion of marijuana edibles (e.g., brownies, cookies, etc.) that contain THC (25).

In response to the burgeoning interest of medical cannabis for animals, the American Veterinary Medical Association, while not yet articulating an official position on the issue, has instead urged veterinarians to make treatment decisions using sound clinical judgment and current medical information in compliance with federal, state, and local laws and regulations (20). The American Holistic Veterinary Medical Association is currently the only veterinary organization that officially encourages researching the safety, dosing,

and uses of cannabis in animals (26). In response to the present lack of scientific research and regulation oversight, most veterinarians suggest that pet owners use caution when giving any cannabis product.

In addition to the paucity of reliable information on the safety, dosage, and effectiveness of cannabis, there is the ambiguity as to its legal status. While there are no Federal Drug Administration approved marijuana products for use in animals, the legality surrounding the recommendation by veterinarians of hemp products for medicinal use in animals can be confusing. While some people cite The United States Court of Appeal for the Ninth Circuit in Hemp Industries Assn., v. Drug Enforcement Admin., 357 F.3d 1012 (9th Cir. 2004), that recognized that “non-psychoactive hemp [that] is derived from the ‘mature stalks’ or is ‘oil and cake made from the seeds’ of the Cannabis plant, …fits within the plainly stated exception to the CSA definition of marijuana” as rationale that hemp is legal, others point to state statutes that govern industrial hemp to argue that the legal status depends on individual state’s laws (27). Therefore, it is suggested that veterinarians and pet owners should check with their individual state to determine if they are able to prescribe or purchase hemp for their patients and pets (22). That said, however, with respect to hemp products, the Farm Bill of 2013, signed into law in 2014, does make allowances for academic research on industrial hemp if state statutes also allow for such research to occur. Colorado is 1 state that has passed statutes allowing for hemp research under particular conditions and restrictions.

This study was designed to survey consumers who have experience with hemp use for their pets. The findings should 1) assist academic researchers in determining which conditions have raised the most interest for therapeutic hemp among consumers and 2) identify promising directions for clinical research. The study explores which products (e.g., capsules, liquid, chews, etc.) pet owners are purchasing, reasons for their purchases, and their perceived value of these products on their pets’ health.

Materials and Methods

An online anonymous survey (a) was made available from January 25, 2015, to February 25, 2015, via a link on a commercial website for a company that specializes in hemp products for animals. The survey was originally piloted by faculty at Colorado State University for assessment of

42 AHVMA Journal • Volume 42 Spring 2016

ambiguity, and/or potentially missing or inappropriate response options. Descriptive statistics and frequency distribution (reported in percentages) were performed using commercially available software (b). Because not all questions were answered by all participants, the totals for eachquestionvary.Reportedpercentagesforeachindividual question are based on total responses for that question. It should be noted that the data were collected from visitors to 1 animal hemp product company and therefore, due to potential biases, care should be taken before generalizing the results to other hemp products.

Results

A total of 632 people responded. Out of those who reported gender (n=495), 83.2% indicated they were female, and the majority of participants were between 51-60 years of age. Only 74 (14.8%) were 35 years of age or younger. When asked about education (n=495), most reported having some college (176, 35.56%) or a 4-year degree (25.66%). When asked to report what state they live in, the largest percentages were California (109, 21.8%), and Washington (59, 11.8%). The survey questions asked pet owners if they had used specific hemp products for either their dog(s) or cat(s). If they responded that they had used hemp products, they were asked several questions about their product choices and their perception of the effects that the product had on their pet. Questions pertained to the amount of time they had been giving the product, reasons for discontinuation of the product (if applicable), reasons they chose the product, and their perception of the product’s impact on specific health issues. Additional questions asked how they had heard about the product, how their veterinarian responded (if told) to the fact that they were using hemp for their animal, and consumers’ views about the product’s safety as well as its comparison to other forms of treatment.

Usage for Dogs

Out of 631 respondents answering this question, 371 (58.8%) indicated they currently use a hemp product for their dog; 86 (13.6%) indicated they did use, but no longer use, a product; 104 (16.5%) have a dog but have not tried a product; and 70 (11.1%) indicated they do not have a dog (Table 1). For those who answered why they had discontinued usage (n=88), 18 (20.45%) reported it was because the product was too expensive; 15 (17.05%) reported it was not effective; and 4 (4.55%) said it was due

to negative side effects. The remaining 59 (67.1%) replied “other.” The “other” responses were predominately related to the death of the animal or the fact that the medical issue had been resolved. Most people (77.6% of 313 responses) indicated they use the product for an illness or condition diagnosed by a veterinarian with the most common conditions including seizures, cancer, anxiety and arthritis.

Table 1: Usage of product for dogs (n=631)
Out of 631 survey respondents answering this question, the percent and number of respondents choosing a specific answer are indicated.

Yes, currently using

58.8% 371

Yes, but not using any longer

13.6% 86

No, I have a dog, but have not tried any dog canna-pet products

16.5% 104

I don’t have a dog

11.1% 70

Usage for Cats

The number of people (from 570 respondents) who indicated they currently use a hemp product for their cat was 68 (11.93%); 36 (6.32%) reported they used it in the past; 154 (27.02%) reported having a cat but have not tried any cat hemp products; and 312 (54.74%) indicated they do not have a cat (Table 2). For those who answered why they had discontinued usage (n=36), 4 (11.11%) reported it was because the product was too expensive; 7 (19.44%) reported it was not effective; and none reported negative side effects. The remaining 25 (69.4%) replied “other.” Most of the “other” responses were due to the death of the cat or an inability to administer the medication. When asked if they were using the product for an illness or condition diagnosed by a veterinarian, most people (81.8% of 55 responses) indicated that they were, with the most common conditions reported being cancer, anxiety, and arthritis.

Table 2: Usage of product for cats (n=570)
Out of 570 survey respondents answering this question, the percent and number of respondents choosing a specific answer are indicated.

Yes, currently using

11.93% 68

Yes, but not using any longer

6.32% 36

No, I have a cat, but have not tried any cat canna-pet products

27.02% 154

I don’t have a cat

54.74% 312

AHVMA Journal • Volume 42 Spring 2016 43

Perceived Impact of Product

Participants were asked to indicate how helpful the products they had been giving their dog were in relieving a multitude of signs and ailments (Table 3). Dog owners reported that the hemp products were moderately or very helpful in numerous areas. The areas felt to be positively impacted by the products were relief from pain (reported by 64.3% as helping moderately or a great deal); helping

with sleep (reported by 50.5% as helping moderately or a great deal); and relieving anxiety (reported by 49.3% as helping moderately or a great deal). When queried about side effects, those reported most frequently included sedation (with a moderate or significant effect reported by 22.0%) and over-active appetite (reported as having moderate or significant effect by 15.9%) (Table 4).

Table 3: Perceived Impact of Product on Symptom Reduction in Dog(s).

The percentage and number of respondents who answered this question by indicating the type of response observed in their dog after using a hemp product.

Perceived Product Impact by Survey Respondents

Did not help at all

Helped very little

Helped moderate amount

Helped a great deal

NA or don’t know

n= number of respondents selecting impact statement

Provided pain relief

1.35% 4

2.02% 6

25.93% 77

38.38% 114

33.00% 98

299

Aided with sleep

2.47% 7

3.89% 11

18.73% 53

31.80% 90

43.11% 122

283

Helped relieve anxiety

3.55% 10

6.38% 18

21.28% 60

28.01% 79

40.78% 115

282

Provided nervous system support

1.41% 4

1.77% 5

14.84% 42

26.15% 74

55.83% 158

283

Reduced inflammation

1.85% 5

1.85% 5

17.34% 47

24.72% 67

54.24% 147

271

Reduced seizures or convulsions

1.44% 4

1.08% 3

10.11% 28

19.13% 53

68.59% 190

278

Reduced vomiting and nausea

2.59% 7

1.48% 4

4.81% 13

14.07% 38

77.78% 210

272

Helped suppress muscle spasms

2.27% 6

2.27% 6

4.92% 13

11.74% 31

79.17% 209

265

Helped with digestive tract problems

2.65% 7

4.55% 12

5.68% 15

11.74% 31

75.38% 199

264

Helped with thunderstorm or fireworks phobia

3.00% 8

4.12% 11

5.99% 16

7.12% 19

80.52% 215

269

Inhibited cell growth in tumors/cancer cells

2.60% 7

1.12% 3

4.46% 12

5.58% 15

86.62% 233

270

Helped with skin conditions

3.77% 10

4.15% 11

7.17% 19

5.66% 15

79.25% 210

265

Killed or slowed bacteria growth

2.97% 8

1.49% 4

1.49% 4

1.86% 5

92.57% 249

270

Helped with fungal infection

2.63% 7

1.50% 4

0.38% 1

1.50% 4

94.36% 251

267

Reduced risk of artery blockage

1.53% 4

0.76% 2

1.53% 4

96.56% 253

263

Reduced blood sugar levels

1.50% 4

98.50% 263

267

Promoted bone growth

1.15% 3

98.85% 257

260

Table 4: Perceived Side-effects of Product on Dog(s).

The percentage and number of respondents who answered this question by indicating the type of side-effect observed in their dog after using a hemp product.

Perceived Product Side-effect by Survey Respondents

No effect

Minimal Effect

Moderate Effect

Significant effect

NA or don’t know

n= number of respondents selecting impact statement

Over-active appetite

42.03% 124

15.59% 46

10.85% 32

5.08% 15

27.46% 81

298

Lack of energy

46.42% 136

16.72% 49

6.83% 20

4.10% 12

26.62% 78

295

Panic reactions

50.17% 147

3.41% 10

7.17% 21

4.10% 12

35.15% 103

293

Panic reactions

39.12% 115

13.61% 40

5.10% 15

2.72% 8

39.80% 117

295

Dry mouth, excessive drinking

34.67% 104

24.67% 74

19.67% 59

2.33% 7

20.00% 60

304

Sedation

1.44% 4

1.08% 3

10.11% 28

19.13% 53

68.59% 190

278

Nausea

51.03% 149

2.74% 8

3.08% 9

1.71% 5

41.78% 122

293

Vomiting

53.24% 156

3.07% 9

2.05% 6

1.71% 5

40.27% 118

294

Increase seizures

55.52% 161

1.72% 5

1.03% 3

0.69% 2

41.38% 120

291

Impaired mental functioning

51.03% 149

3.77% 11

2.05% 6

0.68% 2

42.81% 125

293

Dry or red eyes

51.37% 150

3.08% 9

1.37% 4

0.34% 1

44.18% 129

293

Dizziness

48.79% 141

3.46% 10

1.04% 3

0.35% 1

46.71% 135

290

Rapid heartbeat

43.64% 127

2.75% 8

1.03% 3

52.92% 154

292

High blood pressure

38.97% 113

1.03% 3

60.00% 174

290

44 AHVMA Journal • Volume 42 Spring 2016

For cats, the areas felt to be positively impacted by the products were relief from pain (reported by 66.0% as helping moderately or a great deal); reduction of inflammation (reported by 56.3% as helping moderately or a great deal); and help with sleep (reported by 44.0% as helping moderately or a great deal) (Table 5). When asked to report on side-effects, the ones reported most frequently were sedation (with a moderate or significant effect

reported by 19.2%) and over-active appetite (reported as having moderate or significant effect by 16.0%) (Table 6).

How Purchasers Learned of Products

When asked how they learned about hemp products (n=557), most reported hearing about them from the Internet (284, 50.99%), followed by a friend (90, 16.16%) or their veterinarian (80, 14.36%). When respondents were

Table 5: Perceived Impact of Product on Symptom Reduction in Cat(s)

The percentage and number of respondents who answered this question by indicating the type of response observed in their cat after using a hemp product.

Perceived Product Impact by Survey Respondents

Did not help at all

Helped very little

Helped moderate amount

Helped a great deal

NA or don’t know

n= number of respondents selecting impact statement

Provided pain relief

32.08% 17

33.96% 18

35.85% 19

54

Provided nervous system support

10.00% 5

16.00% 8

74.00% 37

50

Killed or slowed bacteria growth

2.00% 1

4.00% 2

2.00% 1

92.00% 46

50

Reduced blood sugar levels

6.00% 3

94.00% 47

50

Reduced vomiting and nausea

5.77% 3

13.46% 7

21.15% 11

59.62% 31

52

Helped with fungal infection

2.08% 1

2.08% 1

95.83% 46

48

Reduced seizures or convulsions

2.00% 1

2.00% 1

4.00% 2

92.00% 46

50

Reduced inflammation

6.25% 3

27.08% 13

29.17% 14

39.58% 19

49

Aided with sleep

2.00% 1

18.00% 9

26.00% 13

54.00% 27

50

Reduced risk of artery blockage

4.26% 2

4.26% 2

91.49% 43

47

Inhibited cell growth in tumors/ cancer cells

2.13% 1

4.26% 2

4.26% 2

89.36% 42

47

Helped with skin conditions

6.25% 3

10.42% 5

8.33% 4

75.00% 36

48

Helped with thunderstorm or fireworks phobia

2.04% 1

97.96% 48

49

Helped suppress muscle spasms

4.08% 2

2.04% 1

93.88% 46

49

Helped relieve anxiety

2.04% 1

6.12% 3

18.37% 9

18.37% 9

55.10% 27

49

Helped with digestive tract problems

6.12% 3

12.24% 6

14.29% 7

67.35% 33

49

Promoted bone growth

2.08% 1

97.92% 47

48

Table 6: Perceived Side-effects of Product on Cat(s)

The percentage and number of respondents who answered this question by indicating the type of side-effect observed in their cat after using a hemp product.

Perceived Product Side-effect
by Survey Respondents

No effect

Minimal Effect

Moderate Effect

Significant effect

NA or don’t know

n= number of respondents selecting impact statement

Sedation

17.31% 9

32.69% 17

15.38% 8

3.85% 2

30.77% 16

52

Lack of energy

36.73% 18

14.29% 7

10.20% 5

2.04% 1

38.78% 19

50

Over-active appetite

32.00% 16

14.00% 7

16.00% 8

38.00% 19

50

Increase seizures

32.65% 16

67.35% 33

49

Rapid heartbeat

26.00% 13

2.00% 1

2.00% 1

70.00% 35

50

High blood pressure

20.41% 10

2.04% 1

77.55% 38

49

Dry mouth, excessive drinking

28.57% 14

14.29% 7

4.08% 2

2.04% 1

51.02% 25

49

Nausea

36.00% 18

6.00% 3

2.00% 1

6.00% 3

50.00% 25

50

Vomiting

40.00% 20

8.00% 4

4.00% 2

6.00% 3

42.00% 21

50

Dry or red eyes

40.82% 20

2.04% 1

57.14% 28

49

Impaired mental functioning

40.82% 20

4.08% 2

2.04% 1

53.06% 26

49

Dizziness

38.78% 19

2.04% 1

61.22% 30

50

Panic reactions

37.50% 18

6.25% 3

4.17% 2

2.08% 1

52.08% 25

49

AHVMA Journal • Volume 42 Spring 2016 45

asked if they had spoken to their veterinarian about the products (n=558), 274 (49.1%) reported that they had, with most indicating their veterinarian had responded positively (169, 61.7%); only 21 (7.7%) reported their veterinarian had responded negatively; and 84 (30.7%) said their veterinarian did not express an opinion. The number who did not tell their veterinarian was 192 (34.4%), and 47 (8.4%) indicated they had not visited a veterinarian since they began using a hemp product (Table 7).

Table 8: Product Comparison to Other Medications or Therapies (n=461)

Out of 461 survey respondents answering this question, the percent and number of respondents choosing a specific answer are indicated.

This product works better than ANY treatments/medications

19.31% 89

This product works better than MOST other treatments/medications

24.73% 114

This product works better than SOME treatments/medications

18.44% 85

This products works as well as SOME other treatments/medications

20.82% 96

This products works as well as MOST other treatments/medications

9.33% 43

This product does not work as well as MANY other treatments/medications

2.82% 13

This product does not work as well as ANY treatments/medications

2.60% 12

This product does not work as well as MOST other treatments/medications

1.95% 9

Table 7: Veterinarians’ Reactions to Discussion of Product (n=558)

Out of 558 survey respondents answering this question, the percent and number of respondents choosing a specific answer are indicated.

Yes and s/he responded positively about using this product

30.29% 169

Yes and s/he responded negatively about using this product

3.76% 21

Yes and s/he did not express an opinion on using this product for my pet

15.05% 84

No I have not spoken to my veterinarian about using this product

34.41% 192

I have not visited a veterinarian since using this product

8.42% 47

Other

8.06% 45

Product safety

Of the participants who indicated their view about product safety (n=492), 88.8% rated the products as very safe. When asked to compare the products with human hemp-based products (n=500), most (315, 63.00%) indicated they did not know which was safer. The remaining responses, with the exclusion of 2 responses, reported feeling the products were as safe as or safer than human hemp based products. Most respondents felt it was very important to have an independent laboratory analysis conducted to determine the actual content of CBD in each item (394, 78.5%), (n=502). Only 19 (3.8%) of the total 502 respondents reported this was not important.

Product compared to other treatments

When asked to compare the hemp product they used most recently with other forms of animal medication or therapy (n=461), only 34 (7.37%) reported feeling the hemp product did not work as well as other forms of treatment. The number who felt the product worked better than any, most, or some other treatments was 288 (62.48%), and 139 (12.15%) reported the product worked as well as most or some other treatments (Table 8).

Reasons for using product

Lastly, respondents were asked how important several reasons were in their decision to use any hemp products. The most commonly endorsed reasons included liking the idea that the products came from natural sources (rated as moderately or extremely important by 85.1%); thought this product would work as an adjunct to other therapies (rated as moderately or extremely important by 81.1%); the cost of the product (rated as moderately or extremely important by 70.4%); and preferring hemp products to conventional medicine (deemed as moderately or extremely important by 68.8%) (Table 9).

Table 9: Reasons for Using Product

The percentage and number of respondents who answered this question by indicating the reason they have used hemp product(s) in their pet.

Reasons for Using a Hemp Product in Respondent’s Pet

Not important/ not a factor

Minimally important

Moderately important

Extremely important

n = number
of respondents selecting this reason

I prefer hemp products to conventional medicine

17.31% 85

14.46% 71

30.35% 149

38.49% 189

494

I don’t like to support major pharmaceutical companies

33.54% 165

16.46% 81

17.48% 86

32.93% 162

494

I like the idea that this product comes from “natural” sources

7.27% 36

8.08% 40

24.65% 122

60.40% 299

497

The cost of this product is right for me

13.87% 67

16.98% 82

35.61% 172

34.78% 168

489

I thought this product would work as an adjunct to other therapies

11.07% 54

7.99% 39

31.15% 152

50.00% 244

489

46 AHVMA Journal • Volume 42 Spring 2016

Discussion

This is the first study of its kind to systematically investigate the reasons why an increasing number of owners use hemp for their small animals. This study analyzed the feedback of customers from 1 company that specifically produces hemp-based products for animals (28).

The results from this study provide information about why pet owners purchase hemp products and their impressions of the results they have seen. The majority of survey respondents indicated they currently use a hemp product for their dogs, with far fewer reporting they purchased the products for their cats. Dog owners reported that the hemp products were moderately or very helpful in numerous areas. The reported positive impact was highest for relief from pain (64.3%), followed by helping with sleep (reported by 50.5%), and relief from anxiety (49.3%). The most frequently reported side effects were sedation (22.0%) and over-active appetite (15.9%). For cats, the areas felt to be most positively impacted by the products were relief from pain (66.0%), reduction of inflammation (56.3%), and help with sleep (44.0%). The most common side effects for cats were sedation (19.2%) and over-active appetite (16.0%). Side effects were rarely mentioned as a reason for discontinuing a product. For dogs, the most common reason to discontinue a product was expense, followed by ineffectiveness. For cats, the most common reason was ineffectiveness, followed by expense.

When asked to compare hemp products to other forms of medication or therapy, most owners felt the hemp products work better than other treatments with only 7% reporting feeling they do not work as well. The most common reasons for choosing to use hemp products included a positive feeling about the fact that the products come from natural sources, and that the products could be used as an adjunct to other therapies. Furthermore, nearly 90% indicated that they thought hemp products were “very safe,” though they would prefer verification on the contents, especially that of CBD, the active major constituent.

The fact that owners turned to hemp for the treatment of medical conditions may suggest that, similar to human medicine, many are not satisfied with more conventional modes of care. In our survey we found that most respondents were well-educated and that the treatment worked better or at least as well as other approaches. Although the potential

of a placebo effect cannot be ignored, these results do suggest a large number of pet owners felt hemp products helped their pets for numerous ailments with minimal side effects. These results lend additional support to the anecdotal stories currently circulating about the use of hemp products for animals (29).

It is important to avoid interpreting these results as an endorsement for the efficacy of any THC or CPD product in veterinary medicine. Limitations of this study are the potential bias of gathering owners’ opinions based on their own observations, the lack of placebo or control group, the lack of assessment of an owner’s ability to accurately and objectively report changes in their pet’s medical condition, and the anecdotal nature of the survey responses. Nevertheless, the survey does point out that some pet owners are viewing marijuana based products for their pets favorably, emphasizing the need for veterinarians to be informed about these opinions and need for objective, placebo controlled clinical trials.

In addition to providing some support for the growing number of anecdotal stories, these results give guidance to researchers seeking to perform clinical studies on hemp in terms of its putative effectiveness and possible adverse outcomes. We have identified the positive outcomes most commonly observed by consumers. The next step to determine the viability of hemp use therapeutically would be carefully controlled clinical trials. Potential areas of research would include pain management and behavioral interventions for sleep and anxiety for dogs, and pain management, inflammation reduction, and improvement in sleep patterns for cats.

Finally, in terms of safety, independent laboratory analysis of product contents and purity was deemed highly desirable. It is suggested that the field would benefit from studies analyzing the actual content of available products, including amounts of active ingredients; impact of non- active ingredients/additives; stability in the products administered; batch-to-batch variability; and potential contamination with pesticides, fungicides, and herbicides.

In conclusion, the use of cannabis products for animals warrants the attention of veterinarians and researchers. Indeed, it is suggested that both the promises and perils of medical marijuana for animals point to the need for science-based education, regulation, and research;

AHVMA Journal • Volume 42 Spring 2016 47

and veterinarians should be key players in the efforts surrounding the creation of well-designed, controlled

FOOTNOTES

a. Survey Monkey,
b. IBM SPSS Statistical software, version 21

REFERENCES

  1. Whiting PF, Wolff RF, Deshpande S, et al. Cannabinoids for medical use: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2015;313(24):2456–2473.
  2. Hazekamp A, Ware MA, Muller-Vahl KR, et al. The medicinal use of cannabis and cannabinoids—an international cross-sectional survey on administration forms. J Psychoactive Drugs. 2013;45(3):199–210.
  3. West DP. [Internet]. Hemp and marijuana: Myths and realities. North American Industrial Hemp Council, Inc. (n.d.) [cited 2015 Sept 15]. Available from: http://naihc.org/hemp_information/ content/hemp.mj.html.
  4. Brangham W. [Internet]. Is pot getting more potent? c2014 [cited 2015 Sept 14]. Available from: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/ updates/pot-getting-potent/.
  5. Leaf Science Website. [Internet]. 5 Must-Know Facts About Cannabidiol (CBD). c2014 [cited 2015 Sept 15). Available from: http://www.leafscience.com/2014/02/23/5-must-know-facts- cannabidiol-cbd/.
  6. Office of National Drug Control Policy [Internet]. Marijuana resource center: State laws related to marijuana. c2015 [cited 2015 Sept 13]. Available from: https://www.whitehouse.gov/ondcp/state- laws-related-to-marijuana.
  7. National Institute of Health website. Cannabis and cannabinoids [Internet]. c2015 [cited 2015 Sept 15]. Available at: http://www. cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/cam/patient/cannabis- pdq/#link/_13.
  8. Nolen SR. [Internet]. Veterinary marijuana? c2013 [cited 2015 Sept 15]. Available from: https://www.avma.org/News/JAVMANews/ Pages/130615a.aspx.
  9. Robinson N. [Internet]. Is medical marijuana safe for pets? A case for more study. c2014 [cited 2015 Sept 12]. Available from: http://www. vetstreet.com/our-pet-experts/is-medical-marijuana-safe-for-pets-a- case-for-more-study.
    1. Grella CE, Rodriguez L, Kim T. Patterns of medical marijuana use among individuals sampled from medical marijuana dispensaries in Los Angeles. J Psychoactive Drugs. 2014;46(4):263–272.
    2. Walsh Z, Callaway R, Belle-Isle L, et al. Cannabis for therapeutic purposes: Patient characteristics, access, and reasons for use. Int J Drug Policy. 2013;24(6);511–516.
    3. Vandrey R, Raber JC, Raber ME, et al. Cannabinoid dose and label accuracy in edible medical cannabis products. JAMA. 2015;313(24):2491–2493.
    4. Ausick P. [Internet]. Marijuana weekly news roundup. c2015. [cited 2015 Sept 10]. Available from: http://247wallst.com/consumer- products/2015/08/16/marijuana-weekly-news-roundup- 4/#ixzz3jONKRkwG.
    5. Ferner M. [Internet]. Legal marijuana is the fastest-growing industry in the U.S.: Report. c2015 [cited 2015 Sept 12]. Available at: http:// www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/01/26/marijuana-industry-fastest- growing_n_6540166.html.
    6. Neporent L. [Internet]. Nevada law would make ‘pot for pets’ legal. c2015. [cited 2015 Sept 12]. Available from: http://

clinical trials looking at this emerging area of animal treatment (22).

abcnews.go.com/Health/nevada-law-make-pot-pets-legal/ story?id=29730121.

  1. Stout D. [Internet]. Marijuana treats for dogs are now a thing. c2015 [cited 2015 Sept 12]. Available from: http://time.com/3820743/ marijuana-treats-dogs-cannabis-weed-pot/.
  2. National Institute of Health website. [Internet]. Cannabis News Center website. Medical marijuana for dogs gaining popularity with pet owners and businesses. c2015 [cited 2015 Sept 19]. Available from: http://www.cannabisnewscenter.com/medical-marijuana- for-dogs-gaining-popularity-with-pet-owners-businesses/.
  3. Weisbaum H. [Internet]. Pot for pets: Companies make hemp-laced meds for Fidos. c2014 [cited 2015 Sept 14]. Available from: http:// www.nbcnews.com/business/consumer/pot-pets-companies-make- hemp-laced-meds-fidos-n124826.
  4. Allway R. [Internet]. Pot for pets: CBD-infused pet products hit the market. c2015 [cited 2015 Sept 12]. Available from: http:// www.cannabisfn.com/pot-for-pets-cbd-infused-pet-products-hit-the- market/.
  5. Noland SR. [Internet]. A sign of the times: Medical marijuana use and veterinary medicine. c2013 [cited 2015 Sept 12]. Available from: http://atwork.avma.org/2013/07/15/a-sign-of-the-times- medical-marijuana-use-and-veterinary-medicine.
  6. Hughes T. [Internet]. Pot for pets? Some dog lovers say cannabis eases pain. c2015 [cited 2015 Sept 12]. Available from: http:// www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2015/05/11/cannabis-pet- treats/27006099/.
  7. Robinson N. [Internet]. FAQ: What you need to know about hemp and dogs. c2015 [cited 2015 Sept 13]. Available from: http://www. veterinarypracticenews.com/FAQ-What-You–Need-to-Know-About- Hemp-and-Dogs. Accessed September 13, 2015
  8. Meola SD, Tearney CC, Haas SA, et al. Evaluation of trends in marijuana toxicosis in dogs living in a state with legalized medical marijuana: 125 dogs (2005–2010). J Vet Emerg Crit Care. 2012;22(6):690–696.
  9. Fitzgerald KT, Bronstein AC, Newquist KL. Marijuana poisoning. Top Companion Anim M. 2013;28(1):8–12.
  10. Wismer T. [Internet]. Marijuana and dogs and cats: A risky combination. c2014 [cited 2015 Sept 14]. Available from: http:// www.vetstreet.com/our-pet-experts/marijuana-and-dogs-and-cats-a- risky-combination. Accessed September 14, 2015.
  11. Nolen SR. Bad medicine natural remedy? States’ legalization of marijuana has implications for veterinary medicine. JAVMA. 2014;245(7):726–750.
  12. National Conference of State Legislatures website. State industrial hemp statutes. [Internet]. c2015 [cited 2015 Sept 12]. Available from: http://www.ncsl.org/research/agriculture-and-rural- development/state-industrial-hemp–statutes.aspx.

Copyright © 2016. All rights reserved. No part of this article may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means, including photocopying, recording, or other electronic or mechanical methods, without the prior written permission of the AHVMA, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical reviews and certain other noncommercial uses permitted by copyright law.

48 AHVMA Journal • Volume 42 Spring 2016

Used with permission of the Journal of the American Holistic Veterinary Medical Association (JAHVMA). Article first appeared in Volume 42, Spring Issue, 2016.

Expecting Success

Living with Children and Dogs

By Valerie Barry, KPA-CTP

In Partnership With Dogs

www.ipwd.ca

Valerie - Main

Do you have a dog and:

  • you’re expecting a baby?
  • thinking of starting a family?
  • welcoming a grandchild into the family?
  • about to become an aunt or uncle?
  • moved into a new location with young children living next door? 

If any of the above applies to you, what are you doing to help prepare your dog for this new change in his life?

This past year I found myself called upon to work with a number of new families – either ones expecting a baby or those with a new baby already in residence.  In each case, there were either a few issues going on that no one expected or some behaviours that raised a few red flags.

I’m not quite sure why, but it doesn’t always seem to occur to all expectant parents to think about preparing their dog for the arrival of a new child into their lives.  Maybe it’s because their dog is already good with kids, or maybe its because their dog is already friendly and a baby is just another human after all.   It may be that their dog is still only a baby himself, so he should easily learn to fit a human baby into his life and they can grow up together – right?

Well, it’s rarely that simple, unfortunately.  People really need to take the time to prepare their dog for any change in their lives and a new little one is a really big change!baby article 2

All the space in your house from the knees down (or your waist down if you have a big dog) has been pretty much solely occupied by your dog (unless you’re in the habit of sitting or crawling around on the floor a lot).  Suddenly, there appears a small person in your house who is also occupying that same space at times.  This new little being is making strange and sudden noises, crawling around, moving unsteadily, grabbing at things randomly, soon toddling around and eventually running around with even more noise – all in the same space as your dog.  Imagine how your dog might feel and what he might be thinking!  

I don’t know if it seems like competition for that space, or if that space suddenly seems too constricting to your dog.  Perhaps your dog feels like he has no way to escape.  He might even feel that he’s gained a fabulous new playmate right around his size. Whatever your dog might think about this sudden change to his environment – happy, confused, worried, scared, nervous – we really don’t have any way of knowing exactly what that might be.  All we have to go on is his behaviour and what he tries to communicate to us and hopefully respond appropriately and fairly. 

This is what I frequently observe:

1. Dog’s who are not entirely comfortable with strangers on the street or in the house.

This can easily translate into a dog who becomes “protective” in his behaviour toward strangers who visit the new baby, hold the new baby, or stop to see the new baby in the stroller as you take a walk down the street.

2. Dogs who have resource guarding issues – aren’t happy with people around their food, toys or treasured objects like raw bones or beef chews.

This can easily become a dog who growls and snaps at a small person crawling by his “stuff”.  It can also cause a dog to start finding new things to guard like a favorite sleeping spot or a precious adult human who is his cuddle companion.

3. Dogs who are a bit uncomfortable with children or who simply haven’t been around them much.

This can easily become a dog who is growling and even snapping at your new addition for reasons that aren’t always obvious.  It’s one thing to see a child on the street or occasionally be startled by them racing around a corner on the street, it’s something else to be constantly surrounded by the sight, smell and sound of them 24/7.

4. Dogs who aren’t comfortable being handled and touched in certain spots or at certain times.

I meet many dogs who aren’t comfortable getting their nails trimmed, being toweled off, having their collars or harnesses put on, being touched on the head, having their tails and ears handled, etc.  I also meet quite a few dogs who don’t like to be disturbed when they’re sleeping, playing with their toys or eating (which can be a part of resource guarding behaviour).  This isn’t going to play out well with a young child running around and grabbing unsteadily at anything within reach.

5. Dogs who are generally considered pretty good with kids and seem happy to see them and be petted by them.

baby article 1This seems like a big win, right?  But, even if your dog seems to like and even seek out the presence of children, if you have a child around constantly things can certainly change.  Your dog can feel that he has no advocate in the house and no real way to avoid being touched and petted when he doesn’t want to be.  When he meets kids outside, eventually everybody moves on so the touching may never become too much.  In your house, though, everything is different.

He is also the centre of attention when kids are rushing over to meet him, but in his house the new arrival captures all the attention and he may be starting to feel excluded in some family activities.  Even worse, he may be getting into trouble for things that were okay before – getting up on the couch, grabbing toys on the floor that no longer just contain dog toys, grabbing at food held down at his height by little hands, etc.

6. Puppies or very young dogs who, for many months have been the centre of attention, had free run of the house, family laps, free cuddle time, regular walks and play time.

All that often changes when baby comes home and time is limited.  Space is suddenly limited, as each youngster has to be kept separate at times.  Walks become shared with a baby in a stroller who gets all the attention from passers by.  Playtime becomes joint playtime with baby and rules are suddenly put into place that didn’t previously exist.  Free run in the trails is limited because baby can’t easily come along. Parents clamp down on what were considered minor mistakes in the past – no nipping at my feet, biting my hand accidently when grabbing your toy, wrestling on the floor, barking during nap time, etc.baby article 6

What can you do?

Be Proactive.

Prepare your dog for the arrival of a new child as far in advance as possible.

  • Introduce your dog to the new smells of baby lotions, laundry soap, shampoo, diaper cream, etc. so these smells become familiar before the new baby arrives.
  • Decide whether your dog will have access to the nursery or not.  If they are allowed in, teach them an appropriate behaviour like remaining on a bed in the room when you are in there with baby.
  • Teach a solid “Wait” or “Go To Your Bed” skill and have a safe place for your dog to be in every room in the house so he can be included but in safer way than having free range depending on the ambulatory skills of your child.  
  • Take many walks with an empty stroller so they get used to how and where to walk and you can see how much training you need to do on their leash skills well before baby arrives on the scene.
  • Desensitize your dog to the sights and sounds of children’s toys – especially noisy ones.
  • Ensure you have good “Leave It” or “Drop It” cues to use and teach them which toys are theirs and which are off limits.
  • Get your dog used to a confinement area so you can put him somewhere comfortable that he’s happy to be in when you can’t monitor both dog and baby.
  • Ensure that you have a plan for your dog’s exercise needs and begin any new routine well in advance of baby.

Create some New Associations.baby article 7

  • Take your dog out to areas where children are congregating, walking to/from school, playing organized sports and begin getting your dog used to these sights and sounds. 
  • Work at a distance that your dog is comfortable with and spend a few minutes at a time feeding treats or playing tug and fetch games while in the presence of children.  Ensure you practice this at different times of the day.
  • Make sure you cover as many different age groups that you can.
  • We want your dog to begin to associate great treats and having fun with the sights and sounds of children being noisy, moving at various speeds and doing different activities.  
  • Take note of any signs of discomfort that you observe and spend more time working in these circumstances with some spectacular treats.

Be Your Dog’s Advocate.

It should go without saying – NEVER, EVER, EVER leave a child and a dog alone for even the briefest of moments!

  • Regardless how comfortable your dog may or may not be with children, do not allow children to simply run up and get in your dog’s space or touch him.  
  • Consider teaching your dog to touch his nose to a fist held out to him vs. having him endure petting on the head.  With this new skill, your dog can interact in a fun way with a child who is instructed to hold out a closed fist toward your dog for a nose greeting. 
  • If your dog chooses not to interact with a child, respect this choice and back up your dog’s decision by asking the child to keep their distance.  It’s a good teaching opportunity to explain to a child how dogs get to decide if they want to interact or not and why it’s a good and safe choice to respect that dog’s decision.
  • Keep your dog and child separated at home unless you are able to safely monitor their activities or have help at hand to keep an eye on one or the other. 
  • Ensure your dog has a safe place to go to when he needs to get away.  It’s critical that your dog can count on child being able to or being allowed to access.  
  • Have a confinement area (which can be the same as his safe place) that you can put your dog into when you can’t monitor things.  Keep the association of this confinement or safe place location positive.  Fill it with toys or treats and add in treat dispensing toys so it doesn’t feel like isolation and exclusion but rather a fun break with some special things your dog doesn’t get at other times.
  • Don’t ever expect your babysitter to also monitor your dog.  Ensure your dog can be safely crated or confined when others are minding your children in your place.
  • Remember too that your child is also growing, maturing and changing so your dog’s environment will continue to change as your child’s ability to move about the house increases and changes.  It’s easy to avoid that small person who can’t follow you, but when they can not only follow you but grab at you and your toys, how will your dog handle that?baby article 4

Remember Your Dog Has Needs Too.

  • Try and keep to your dog’s routine as much as you can even if you have to get the help of a friend to walk your dog at times.
  • If your dog’s routine has to change, take the time to get them used to a new routine well in advance of the arrival of a new child.
  • Ensure that your dog gets your undivided attention at times so they feel like they still have their alone time with you without the constant accompaniment of the new arrival. Consider taking a fun class with just you and your dog as a way for both of you to take a break with each other – maybe tricks, scenting or some fun outdoor group obedience classes are in order.
  • Make sure that breaks – dog from child – happens as it needs to.  Everybody needs a break from each other regardless of how they might love each other, or not.  Err on the side of caution and give your dog more breaks than less – many small ones throughout the day would be ideal.
  • Consider upping your dog’s mental stimulation so they have something to focus on that is helpful to their overall demeanor and any anxiety or concern they may feel.  Invest in some new treat dispensing toys to keep him interested and mentally challenged.

 

Every single dog trainer you will ever meet cringes when we see those “cute” dog and child pictures that circulate on the internet and Facebook.  Dogs can be incredibly tolerant which is often mistaken as “bombproof” and “great with kids”.  Don’t make those mistakes – keep your children and your dog safe by making good choices and preparing and managing things well.

If you take the time to help prepare your dog for your new family member, then your dog can be a fun and beloved member of your family who fits in easily and can take part in most family activities.  

We are counting on each generation to continue to have empathy and caring for our animals who do not have a voice to help themselves.  We need to have children and pets able to live safely with each other.  It’s important to be raised to think responsibly about our pets, be taught to take an active part in their care, and be encouraged to consider their mental and physical welfare.  If you have an opportunity to interact appropriately with pets as you grow up, you are may be a little bit more inclined to be interested in and maybe even active in all animal welfare as an adult.

If you have a dog who you think isn’t entirely comfortable with your children (or other children), please consider hiring a professional dog trainer who uses positive methods and has experience with behaviour modification.  Remember to keep it positive – for everyone!

Some Good Resources

  • Living With Kids and Dogs…Without Losing Your Mind, a book by Colleen Pelar 
  • Colleen Pelar’s website: www.livingwithkidsanddogs.com 
  • Family Paws Parent Education website: www.familypaws.com

What Our Dog Really “Nose”

By Amanda Ringnalda and Kelly Taylor of Sama Dog

www.samadog.com

IMG_5774

 

We all know our dogs have an amazing sense of scent. Just try and quietly eat some cheese; bet you he’ll be there faster than you can say “timberdoodle” (yes that is an actual name of a cheese!)

Dogs have this remarkable organ called the vomeronasal organ (VNO). The VNO detects odors and pheromones; this is why your furry friend loves to sniff on walks. With every lamp post he sniffs, he is catching up on the recent gossip via pee-mail. He can tell what Boomer has recently eaten, if Gracie is stressed and even if Rusty has had the dreaded snip snip! It seems that a 70% sniff and 30% walk outing is equivalent to us humans spending an entire day on Facebook! 

What is really fascinating about our furry friends is what they actually know! How many times have you heard the phrase, “I swear my dog is like a little person, he knows what I’m thinking!” or “You know, I’m sure Noodle knew we were going to the vet” or “Tinkerbell can always sense when it’s bath time!” And how about when we’re sad, angry or grieving? Isn’t it amazing how they just know? They sense our energy and our intentions. Wonder if they can actually see auras… wouldn’t that be the coolest thing?! We know they can sense diseases like Cancer, sniff out drugs and even find missing people. It’s remarkable! This deserves more credit than we give them. Most of us couldn’t even sniff out a moldy piece of timberdoodle under the couch cushion! 

But do we really give a dog credit for what he “nose”?

Think about it – we choose our dog’s food, their beds, their playmates, where they sleep, their treats, everything, yet do we really know what is best for them? Yes we love them, and yes we do our very best for them (we know dogs who eat better than their owners!), but what would happen if we gave them the “pawsibility” to choose for themselves?

At times when your dog is sick, how often have you thought, “I wish they could tell me what they need”?  What if you could give them the opportunity to do so via self-selection? Wild dogs and wolves naturally seek out certain berries and herbs to help them purge and rid the body of things it no longer needs or that are causing discomfort or illness. Our domestic dogs are no different.IMG_8922

There is a growing community of Caninepharmacognosy (Canine: dog, Pharma: medical, Cognosy: knowing) practitioners. When it comes to caninepharmacognosy, our dogs truly have the opportunity to self-select what they need to help them feel better. For instance, dogs may instinctively choose ginger oil when they have had an upset stomach. In the Ayurveda world, ginger is one of the top natural medicinal remedies, especially for digestion, so to observe as they knowingly self-select is fascinating. Dogs are naturally drawn to healing remedies – grasses such as wheatgrass, macerates such as arnica, essential oils such as lavender and water essences such as valerian water. They choose to inhale these remedies or ask for them to be applied topically on the area of discomfort or on the femoral artery where there is no hair, allowing the oil to get into the blood stream quicker.IMG_1458

Now we aren’t saying to start experimenting with essential oils without proper guidance – this is what a licensed practitioner offers and you should learn more from a seasoned practitioner. One great resource we recommend is Caroline Ingraham’s book How to Heal Your Dog. But you can definitely start on the path to having your dog self-select on some of the things he needs. Take coconut oil, for example – within the past few years the world has gone crazy over this stuff. There are hundreds of ways to use this natural healing remedy, but also be wary of too much of a good thing. Some dogs may not digest this well or may not actually need it, so why not try it via self-selection? Put a small amount on a plate or in their feeding bowl without mixing it in their food. Do they eat it? If yes, try it again in a few days. If not, try it again later. If they don’t need it, they won’t eat it.

The same thing goes for certain foods. Sometimes we assume our dogs are picky eaters, but this is not always the case. Dogs eat with their noses so if they continually refuse a certain food, they might not need the ingredients. Check what’s in there, learn to be a label reader and try out a new protein/food. 

Go on, try giving your buddy the choice to exercise what he “nose.” It’ll be fun for both of you and he will love you for it.bodhi 2

 

 

The Top 4 Secrets to Better Teeth for Your Pet

By Dr. Moira Drosdovech, DVM

 

Before and after dental_n

This article might well have been titled The Top 4 Secrets to Spending Less at the Vet! It stands to reason that if you can maintain the health of your pets’ teeth without having them professionally cleaned, you simply spend less! 

What exactly are we talking about here that we want to prevent? The condition is known as Periodontal Disease and it is rampant in our pet population.

What does periodontal disease look like? Loose teeth and gum inflammation combined with halitosis and bacterial infection. There are varying grades of this disease with progressive worsening of the condition as we advance from Grade 1 to 4. Many toy dog breeds acquire this condition and end up toothless long before they have reached a ripe old age. Tartar on tooth_n

As common at that is for smaller breeds, that does not make it normal by any stretch. However, what is normal for dogs and cats alike is to keep all of their teeth to old age and for there to be minimal gum disease and loose teeth. I have a small Shih tzu cross that is over 13 now and still has every single tooth she started with and has never had to have a professional dental because she keeps her own teeth clean (secret below)!

So what are the secrets to good dental health in pets??

Secret 1: Through smart choices from the very day you bring home your dog or cat! If we choose the right foods and things to chew on when our animals are young and easily conditioned to eat what we offer, then half the battle is won. If you wait until the rot of periodontal disease have set in, it is nearly too late.

For my clients, that tends to be the raw food diet with raw bones to gnaw on usually starting at as young as 6 weeks old, but certainly by 12 weeks. Dry foods do not clean teeth as is commonly believed. An analogy I often use is that, if indeed that was the case, dentists would be out of business as we could just eat crispy cookies before we go to bed and dispense with the tooth brush!

Secret 2: Regular chewing of items like bones and safe, non-toxic chew sticks that keep your pets’ gums healthy and teeth tartar-free. Regular means a few times weekly!

While not for everyone or every pet, eating and chewing on raw bones is an excellent way to maintain dental health and can even benefit those pets that already have significant tartar buildup or even have some periodontal disease, but not if there are loose teeth.

Raw bones can be knuckle and marrow bones, but they can also be poultry parts, like necks and wings, even legs. When eating a raw bone such as these, the bones do not splinter into shards as they do when they are cooked and are therefore safe. I highly advise against all cooked bones and each bone must be evaluated for the safety for your particular dog or cat. It is best to obtain professional advice before beginning to feed raw bones. 

You may choose to feed chews like Greenies, or Bully Sticks and the like, but the ingredients of some of those items are questionable and might be toxic in some cases. I have watched the manufacturing process of rawhides and it will turn your stomach when you discover that they use a wide assortment of toxic chemicals to make them, including bleach. As they are a by-product of the leather industry, there is no need for approval by the FDA and no need to disclose what goes in them!!!

See the end of the article for Guidelines for feeding raw bones.

Secret 3: Regular checkups so that your veterinarian can examine the mouth and teeth to not only check for inflammation and other signs of periodontal disease, but also to check for abnormal growths and other issues. I cannot tell you how many times I have seen oral cancer that may have been more treatable had the pet been in regularly for check ups. 

Secret 4: Use only a veterinary professional to examine your pets’ mouth, as they are the only ones qualified to examine and make a diagnosis followed by a professional cleaning, yes, with anesthetic. Over the years, there have been countless times when we have examined and then recommended professional dental work on a pet that had been having their teeth “cleaned” every 6 – 12 months by a canine dental hygienist. Many of these pets, mostly dogs, have needed multiple teeth extracted and were afflicted with what I refer to as “foul mouth aids” with breath so bad, the entire room is putrid. Some are so bad it makes you want to cry at the amount of suffering they endured for far longer than necessary. 

I’ll admit that there are times when the tartar buildup on your pet’s teeth is strictly “cosmetic” and a canine hygienist can be used, but that is where the practicality of this stops. To know if it is simply cosmetic tartar, only a veterinarian can tell you that. It is erroneous to compare animal dentistry to human dentistry as animals cannot inform the hygienist or the dentist about what their teeth feel like.

If there is any kind of occult (underlying) periodontal disease, your pet will experience discomfort during a non-anesthetic cleaning and the procedure will likely hasten the disease progression as now even more bacteria can get in between the tooth and gums and, of course, the hygienist cannot prescribe antibiotics. Your pet will continue to suffer, unbeknownst by you. I feel strongly that having this procedure done because it is “anesthetic-free” is one of the worst choices you can make for your pet’s health care, bar none. 

Remember! Dentistry is not expensive! Neglect is!

Guidelines for Feeding Raw Bones to your Dogs Noah's Arc raw bones

Before you give a dog a bone, there are some rules to be aware of:

  1. Some dogs are “aggressive chewers” and can chip or fracture their teeth on raw bones. Don’t blindly offer raw bones to your dogs as you may wind up with a bill for expensive dental work. Monitor their chewing and progress and intervene as needed.

Consumable bones are the bones of birds (typically chicken wings and chicken, duck and turkey necks). They are softer and more pliable and  (whole or coarsely ground) are a good alternative to the recreational raw bones for aggressive chewers.

  1. Bone marrow contains fat and therefore, the calories must be taken into account and should be avoided if your pet has pancreatitis.
  2. Marrow can sometimes cause diarrhea if consumed by dogs with sensitive stomachs or in large quantities. I always advise clients to scoop out at least some of the marrow for the first few bones until they become accustomed to it.
  3. Bones can be messy. I usually suggest tying the dog to the kitchen table leg and having them chew their bone on one of those inexpensive area mats. 
  4. When it comes to the right size bone for your dog, match the bone size to your dog’s head. There’s really no such thing as a “too big” bone, but there are definitely bones that are too small for some dogs.
  5. If your pet breaks off large pieces of raw bone, I recommend removing them before she has the opportunity to swallow them. Choose bones that don’t have extra pieces that can be chewed off.
  6. Never cook raw bones; cooked bones splinter and are dangerous.
  7. Always supervise dogs when you’ve given them raw bones.
  8. Feed bones to multiple dogs in separate rooms or tied up. No need to test how much they enjoy sharing their bones!

Noise and Healing Sounds

Apricot poodle puppy listening to music on headphones, isolated on white background

By Dr. Susan O. Wagner, DVM, MS, ACVIM, 

Bioacoustics is the study of sound in animals. It looks at the ways in which animals communicate as well as the positive and negative effects of environmental sounds. Music is the most common therapeutic use of sound, but other modalities such as chanting, tuning forks, and nature sounds have been employed by sound practitioners. Research in various species shows that noise can have a detrimental effect on physiology and behavior. Music studies reveal trends, but it is not clear as to what types of music work best for calming or enrichment and if any species differences exist. Further research with larger numbers of subjects may elucidate these points. We may also find that response to acoustic therapy is individualized, and an understanding of physical, emotional, environmental, and bioenergetic factors are needed to design an appropriate therapy plan.

Introduction

Sound is an important part of every animal’s surroundings. This is especially true for those suffering from anxiety disorders. Most owners do not realize the significance of sound in their homes, and many veterinarians are not cognizant of the sonic environment exposure of their hospitalized patients.

Sound is a type of electromagnetic radiation. Its frequency, or pitch, is measured in hertz (Hz). One Hz is defined as one complete wave cycle per second. Humans hear frequencies of 20–20,000 Hz, and dogs hear between 40–45,000 Hz. Cats can hear frequencies up to 64,000 Hz (1, 2). Both dogs and cats can hear sounds that are much further away than humans can perceive (3).

The intensity or loudness of a sound is measured in decibels (dB). Hearing damage occurs instantly at 100 dB and can also be caused by prolonged exposure to levels above 85 dB. The dB of some common sounds are listed in Table 1 (3).

Decibels for Common Sounds

Whisper

30 dB

Traffic

70 dB

Conversation

40 dB

Lawn mower

90 dB

Dishwasher

60 dB

Rock concert

130 dB

Vacuum

80 dB

Garbage disposal

80 dB

Table 1.

 

Bioacoustics is the study of sound in animals. It looks at the ways in which animals communicate as well as the positive and negative effects of environmental sounds. Psychoacoustics is the discipline that studies the perception of sound in humans (4). This includes how people listen, their psychological responses, and the physiological impact of music and sound on the human nervous system. Research suggests that psychoacoustic concepts also apply to animals (5). The purpose of this article is to review the effects of sound and music on various animal species.

SOUND AND THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

The French otolaryngologist, Dr. Alfred Tomatis, is considered the father of psychoacoustics, as he was one of the first people to understand the effects of sound on the nervous system. Tomatis realized that sound is a nutrient for the body, thereby being useful to calm, stimulate, and balance the nervous system. Although beyond the scope of this article, Tomatis’ principles are still being used in human acoustic therapy today (5).

A key neurologic concept important in sound awareness is the orienting response, which occurs when the nervous system becomes aware of a stimulus (6). Whether the individual is cognizant or not, the brain actively engages with any stimulus. In the case of hearing, the process quickly goes from passive hearing to active listening. If the stimulus is low level, the nervous system reverts back to its original state. More intense stimuli create startle and fight or flight responses. For example, animals experience sudden arousal when an unusual or loud sound is heard.

The orienting, startle, and fight or flight responses are all survival mechanisms which are especially meaningful in prey animals. The ear pinna on dogs, cats, and horses allow the reception of sound to occur on a much more sensitive level than in humans. While an orienting response may get an animal’s attention but not elicit overt fear, negative consequences can still occur. Ongoing instinctive reaction to sudden noise can interrupt the animal’s relaxed state. This can be especially significant in the veterinary setting when ill patients are not able to rest.Dog with radio

NOISE TOXICITY

Hearing loss and noise induced stress have been well documented in many species, including laboratory animals. While variability in hearing damage is seen among strains of

mice, most are negatively affected by a loud environment (5, 7). Background laboratory noise routinely reaches 80 dB, with human activity transiently increasing intensity by up to 40 dB (8). Moreover, early exposure to noise accelerates age induced hearing loss (9).

Other noise related toxicities have been noted in both mice and rats. Stress hormones and blood pressure increase with intense sounds, and chronic noise exposure can produce increases in blood pressure that last for weeks after the environment is normalized (10). Birth defects have been documented in mice and rats when the mother was exposed to noise pollution during pregnancy. Behavioral changes were also seen in the offspring (11, 12).

Dogs also exhibit negative effects from noise. In one study, sound blasts increased heart rate and salivary cortisol levels and elicited postural signs of anxiety (13). Consistent ambient levels of 85 dB are reported to create anxiety in canines (14). Brain Auditory Evoked Response (BAER) was used to measure hearing loss in kenneled dogs housed at a facility in which background noise often reached 100 dB. All 14 dogs studied had hearing loss within 6 months (15).

Wildlife are not immune to noise pollution. Global efforts have increased to protect cetaceans from modern sound technology. Sonar often reaches over 200 dB and can disrupt normal communication among whale populations and create behavioral changes (16). Sea lions, dolphins, and other marine life are also affected by human induced sound (17–21).

HEALING SOUNDS

While noise toxicity can have far-reaching detrimental effects, sound can also be used for healing. Much of the discipline of positive sound therapy is based on the psychoacoustic principles of resonance and entrainment. Resonance describes the effect of 1 frequency on another. The vibration of sound causes a change in the frequency of a cell, muscle, or organ. Entrainment is the process by which periodic rhythms cause major body pulse systems (heart rate, brain waves, and breath) to naturally speed up or slow down (22). Through these acoustic processes, sound causes a physiologic effect on the body.

Pattern identification is another component of psychoacoustics and is related to the complexity of sound. When a new pattern is introduced, the nervous system engages the orienting response. The focus of the brain turns to this sensory input with active listening. Once the pattern has been processed, the brain returns to a passive hearing state. While pattern identification appears to be relevant in animals, it is not known whether more complex psychoacoustic properties such as intervals and harmonies influence them (23).

Music is the most common therapeutic use of sound, but other modalities such as chanting, tuning forks, and nature sounds have been employed by sound practitioners. Music therapy has been well studied in humans. It has been shown to be useful for many conditions, including neurologic rehabilitation, dementia, and pain (5, 24, 25). Music also improves quality of life and assists with concentration and relaxation (26).

Sound therapy has been studied in a variety of animal species. Cows were more likely to come into the milking parlor if they were signaled by music (27). An increase in growth rate was seen in chickens exposed to music, and stress was reduced in layer chicks when sound was used for enrichment (28, 29). A pilot study in horses suggested that eating decreased when jazz was played, but increased with country music (30).

Music therapy and sound enrichment are low cost, easy modalities to enrich the lives of captive animals. Whether it be a short term stay in a veterinary clinic or shelter, or long term captivity in a sanctuary or zoo, sound can play a key role in enhancing the welfare of these animals. Wells found that the quality of life for Asian elephants and gorillas was improved through auditory enhancement. Gorillas showed a tendency toward relaxation and a reduction in stress behaviors with rainforest sounds and classical music (31). Elephants had a significant decrease in stereotypic behaviors with classical music (32).

Dogs also respond well to environmental enhancement with sound. Classical music decreased stress behaviors in kenneled dogs better than heavy metal, pop, and conversation (33). Heart rate variability, a measure of stress, also improved with classical music in kenneled dogs. This change was still measurable after 9 days of music therapy, meaning the dogs did not habituate to the music (34). And yoga music was effective in reducing stress behaviors in the veterinary setting (35).

Four types of psychoacoustically arranged classical music were tested by Leeds, Spector, and Wagner. Results suggested that all classical music does not have the same effect on behavior in dogs. Varying the instrumentation and tempo produced differences in results, with slower tempos and simpler sounds having the greatest calming effect (5). In the second phase of the research, music with the most calming effect was tested against normal classical music. Twice as many anxiety behaviors were reduced with the psychoacoustically arranged work (5).

Work has also been done with cats. In a study of young, middle-aged, and older felines, results showed that they preferred music with frequencies and tempos similar to what is heard in feline communication. The young and older cats responded more than the middle-aged subjects (5). Psychoacoustic principles that stimulate the nervous system have been used for enrichment in cats, but data is not yet available on its efficacy (36).

Environmental sound is important even when the individual is not cognizant of the surroundings. A study of 12 cats showed that respiratory rate and pupil diameters changed depending on whether classical music, pop, or rock was played during spay procedures. Classical music had the most positive effects, pop was intermediate, and heavy metal caused increased respiratory rate and pupil diameters, indicating a stress response (37, 38).

While research in sound therapy is promising, variability among studies does exist. In a more recent study of Lowland gorillas, only natural sounds reduced stereotypic behavior; classical or rock music did not (39). Similarly, a study in kenneled dogs did not show a difference between psychoacoustically arranged classical music when compared to other types of music. Normal classical music did best at reducing stress, and heavy metal increased stress induced behaviors (40).

Conclusion

Music is just one aspect of the vast array of sounds affecting the complicated auditory and nervous systems in animals and humans. When we consider species and individual differences in communication, sensory processing, and adaptation, it is not surprising that music research is revealing trends but no definitive answers.

While it is clear that noise has a detrimental effect on many species, the effects of music are not as apparent. We may be witnessing challenges similar to studying any complementary modality. For example, subjects in an acupuncture study may all have the same clinical disorder but require very different points due to their underlying nature and imbalances. They all receive acupuncture, but a set of points that helps one individual may not be appropriate for the other. In our conventional mindset of controlling every variable (i.e., all subjects receive the same acupuncture points), we may make incorrect conclusions from the data.

Conversely, further research with larger numbers of subjects may show us that species variation does exist, and we may find that one species prefers nature sounds while another requires classical music. But if we apply holistic concepts to acoustic therapy, we are more likely to find that an understanding of physical, emotional, environmental, and bioenergetic factors are needed to design an appropriate therapy plan. Truly effective sound therapy may need to be prescribed on a case by case basis.

References:

  1. Heffner HE. Hearing in large and small dogs: Absolute thresholds and size of the tym-panic membrane. Behav Neurosci 1983;97:310-318.
  2. www.lsu.edu/deafness/HearingRange.html
  3. www.pawscrossed.co.uk
  4. Leeds J. The Power of Sound: How to Manage Your Personal Soundscape for a Vital, Productive, & Healthy Life. Rochester Vermont: Healing Arts Press, 2001:95.
  5. Leeds J, Wagner SO. Through A Dog’s Ear: Using Sound to Improve the Health & Be-havior of Your Canine Companion. Boulder, Colorado: Sounds True, 2008.
  6. Leeds J. Sonic Alchemy: Conversations with Leading Sound Practitioners. 4th ed. San Rafael, California, InnerSong Press, 2005:33-44.

7. Ohlemiller KK, Wright JS, Heidbreder AF. Vulnerability to noise-induced hearing loss in ‘middle-aged’ and young adult mice: a dose-response approach in CBA, C57BL, and BALB inbred strains. Hear Res. 2000;149:239–247.

8. Lauer AM, Bradford JM, Ziwei JH, et al. Sound levels in modern rodent housing rooms are an uncontrolled environmental variable with fluctuation mainly due to human activi-ties. Lab Anim (NY). 2009;38(5):154-160.

9. Kujawa SJ, Liberman MC. Acceleration of age-related hearing loss by early noise expo-sure: Evidence of misspent youth. J Neurosci. 2006;26(7):2115-2123.

10. Cook RO, Nawrot PS, Hamm CW. Effects of high-frequency noise on prenatal develop-ment and maternal plasma and uterine catecholamine concentrations in the CD-1 mouse. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1982;66:338–348.

  1. Kimmel CA, Cook RO, Staples RE. Teratogenic potential of noise in mice and rats. Toxi-col Appl Pharmacol. 1976;36:239–245.
  2. Nawrot PS, Cook RO, Staples RE. Embryotoxicity of various noise stimuli in the mouse. Teratol. 1980;22:279–289.
  3. Beerda B, Schilder MBH, van Hooff JARAM, et al. Behavioural, saliva cortisol and heart rate responses to different types of stimuli in dogs. App Anim Behav Sci. 1998;58:365-381.
  4. Herron ME, Shreyer T. The pet-friendly veterinary practice: a guide for practitioners. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2014;44(3):451-481.
  5. Scheifele P, Martin D, Clark JG, et al. Effect of kennel noise on hearing in dogs. Am J Vet Res. 2012;73(4):482-489.
  6. Erbe C, Reichmuth C, Cunningham K, et al. Communication masking in marine mam-mals: A review and research strategy. Mar Pollut Bull. 2016;Feb 15;103(1-2):15-38.
  7. Miller PJ, Kvadsheim PH, Lam FP, et al. First indications that northern bottlenose whales are sensitive to behavioral disturbance from anthropogenic noise. R Soc Open Sci. 2015 Jun 3; 2(6):140484.
  8. Visser F, Cure C, Kvadsheim PH, et al. Disturbance-specific social responses in long-finned pilot whales, Globicephala melas. Sci Rep. 2016;Jun29;6:28641.
  9. Au WWL, Pack AA, Lammers MO, et al. Acoustic properties of humpback whale songs. J Acoust Soc Am. 2006;120(2):1103- 1110.

20.Buckstaff KC. Effects of watercraft noise on the acoustic behaviour of bottlenose dol-phins,Tursiops truncatus, in Sarasota Bay, Florida. Mar Mamm Sci. 2004;20(4):709-725.

  1. Costa DP. A bioenergetics approach to developing the PCAD model. In: Popper AN,Hawkins T. (Eds), The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer Verlag New York, 432-426.
  2. Leeds J. The Power of Sound: How to Manage Your Personal Soundscape for a Vital, Productive, & Healthy Life. Rochester Vermont: Healing Arts Press, 2001:33-43.
  3. Zhang MU, Ho RC. Personalized reminiscence therapy M-health application for patients living with dementia: Innovating using open source code repository. Techno Health Care 2016; Oct 22.
  4. Orentin M, Quintame V, Yelnik A, et al. Experimental feasibility pilot study: Music ther-apy and rehabilitation care follow a stroke. Ann Phys Rehabil Med. 2016;59S:e48.
  5. Espi-Lopez GV, Ingles M, Ruesces-Nicolau MA, Moreno-Segura N. Effect of low im-pact aerobic exercise is combined with music therapy on patients with fibromyalgia: A pilot study. Complement Ther Med. 2016;Oct 28:1-7.
26. Shin YN, Chien WH, Chiang HS. Elucidating the relationship between work attention performance and emotions from listening to music. Work. 2016; Sep 27. DOI: 10.3233/WOR-162408.
27. Uetake K Hurnik JF, Johnson L. Effect of music on voluntary approach of dairy cows to an automatic milking system. Appl Anim Behav Sci. 1997;53:175-182.
28. Gvaryahu G, Cunningham DL, van-Tienhovern A. Filial imprinting, environmental en-richment, and music application effects on behavior and performance of meat strain chicks. Poult Sci. 1989;68(2):211-217.
29. Davila SG, Campo JL, Gil MG, et al. Effects of auditory and physical enrichment on three measurements of fear and stress (tonic immobility duration, heterophil to lympho-cyte ratio, and fluctuating asymmetry) in several breeds of layer chicks. Poult Sci. 2011;90:2459-66.
30. Houpt K, Marron BS, Seeliger BS. A preliminary study of the effect of music on equine behavior. J Eq Vet Sci. 2000;20(11):691-737.
31. Wells DL. A note on the effective auditory stimulation on the behavior and welfare of zoo-housed gorillas. Applied An Beh Sci. 2006:327-332.
32. Wells DL, Irwin RM. Auditory stimulation as enrichment for zoo-housed Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Anim Welfare. 2008;17:335-340.
33. Wells DL, Graham L, Hepper PG. The influence of auditory stimulation on the behavior of dogs housed in a rescue shelter. Anim Welfare. 2002:385-393.
34. Bowman A, Scottish Spca, Dowell FJ, et al. “Four Seasons” in an animal rescue centre: classical music reduces environmental stress in kenneled dogs. Phys & Beh. 2015;143:70-82.
35. Boardman K. Managing canine patient’s stress through music therapy: part one. Vet Nurses Times. 2014;6:26-27.
36. Snowdan CT, Teie D, Savage M. Cats prefer species-appropriate music. App Anim Beh Sci 2015;166:106-111.
37. www.ThroughACatsEar.com
38. Mira F, Costa A, Mendes E, et al. Influence of music and its genres on respiratory rate and pupil diameter variations in cats under general anesthesia: contribution to promoting patient safety. J Feline Med Surg. 2016;18(2):150-159.
39. Robbins L, Margulis SW. The effects of auditory enrichment on gorillas. Zoo Biol. 2014; 33 (3):197–203.
40. Kogan LR, Schoenfeld-Tader R, Simon AA. Behavioral effects of auditory stimulation on kenneled dogs. J Vet Behave. 2012;7:268-75.

Reprinted with permission, www.ahvma.org

The Language of Love

By Andreea Gabriel

 

rey-photo-by-barna-tanko-6

About four years ago, my husband surprised me with the most wonderful gift I had ever received. When I opened the door, he handed me an adorable snow-white Maltese puppy that seemed and continues to seem to me the sweetest and cutest creature I have ever seen. My husband and I welcomed him into our lives with great joy and named him Rey, which means king in Spanish. Rey is truly the king of our house and of our hearts. He sleeps on the bed with us, eats at the table with us, watches TV with us, and does a lot of human activities.

Rey speaks the language of love. From the first moment when our eyes crossed, Rey and I started to communicate in a way that I am sill trying to understand. What makes Rey a special communicator? He does not bark much.

He communicates with his face and body like no other dog that I have seen. He has an extremely expressive face and a super-flexible body. He often raises both his brows as high as possible when he is puzzled and he stares at me, while shaking his head. Other times, when he wants to entertain us, he first raises his left brow and lowers the right other. Then he switches the pace and raises the right one and lowers the left one. He keeps doing this for a few minutes, while my husband and I keep laughing and applauding him. Other times, he just winks at us and then he goes hide under the table. He likes playing hide-and-seek.

Every morning, the very moment we get out of bed and put our feet on the floor, Rey does a special good morning ritual. He greets us in front of the bed, by stretching his rear legs backwards and his front legs forward until he lies completely flat, face down on the floor. He continues his ritual by raising his left paw and then his right one, alternating this movement a few times. He knows how to do many other funny and unique body postures, which are hard to describe and which resembles yogic asanas. He does yoga in his own way and sits so quite when I meditate. His energy is so blissful and serene.rey-2photo-by-barna-tanko-3

Rey is very expressive not only kinesthetically, but also acoustically. He literally sings, but he needs a special musical tone. Before we moved into a condo, we used to live in a house, which had a musical doorbell. The house had a very large front window, which covered almost the entire wall, right next to the entrance door. The window was positioned so low on the wall that even our tiny Maltese could look through it and wave at us. Every time someone rang the doorbell, Rey would run to the window and start singing, imitating the musical sound of the doorbell. His singing continued for a few minutes after the doorbell stopped. We had neighbors who told us that they liked ringing our doorbell when we were not at home just to hear Rey sing and see him through the large front window. Even if I had the key with me, I thoroughly enjoyed ringing the doorbell just to witness one more time this priceless show.

Rey can do various other tricks and he responds well to some commands such as: “up, come, sit, turn around, up and turn around”, but I am sure that other dogs can do more tricks than him. He has never been formally trained. What makes Rey a special communicator is a gift that goes beyond the ability to respond to some obedience commands. In fact, Rey is not really obedient, because sometimes he likes to lead the way, but he is truly empathetic and energetically in tune with us. Every time my husband or I accidentally bump into something in the house and say “Ouch” or express pain or suffering in some way, Rey automatically runs to us and covers our face in kisses. He gives us hugs and holds us tight with his tiny paws. If we are sad or in pain, Rey does not leave our side and continues to kiss, lick, and hug us until we feel better. He has an amazing ability to comfort, amuse, and amaze us.

Like me, Rey likes to express himself through the clothes that he wears. He has quite a wardrobe, consisting of cute little silk scarves for summer, raincoats, sweaters for fall, and coats for winter. In fact, not only that he doesn’t mind wearing clothes, but he actually seems to enjoy it, the same way he is perfectly fine with being shampooed and blow-dried in order to maintain his snow-white appearance. He walks with his head and tail high and we walk at the same pace. The color of his scarf or coat generally matches the color theme of my outfit. So many people stop us to tell me how much they like the way my dog’s clothes match mine. The most amazing part is that he has scarves in all possible colors and that many times he knows which one to pick from the pile to in order match the outfit that I am wearing that day. In fact, Rey has quite an obsession with clothes and when I wear casual socks indoors, he particularly enjoys pulling them off my feet with his teeth. Then he goes hide the socks somewhere, but after he plays with them for a while, he eventually brings them back to me. Rey has never ruined anything. He is way too sweet and smart to do that.

Whenever we bring him a gift, he senses it even before we take it out of the bag. It is very impressive how, out of all the new items in the shopping bags that we put on the floor, he goes and picks exactly the item that we bought for him, be it a toy, a piece of clothing, or a bag of treats.

I have suddenly had the realization that Rey must have developed a personality that mirrors mine. He is very empathetic, adaptable, flexible, intuitive, a linguist/communicator in his own way, stylish, considerate, likes yoga, loves nature, adores trolling though the Kitsilano neighborhood, senses special people, and has an interesting sense of humour.

I believe that we are just beginning to scratch the surface in terms of human-canine communication. There is so much to be explored and understood. All dog owners must think that their dogs are special in some way and all dogs should be special to someone. What makes your dog special? How does your dog communicate with you?

Photos of Rey, courtesy of Barna Tanko

www.barnatanko.com

Bio Note:

Andreea Gabriel is a writer, educator, metaphysician, and researcher. She is passionate about languages, energy, consciousness, and ancient mysteries. She feels blessed to have Rey as her wonderful canine companion.